1– Trend of the
more ancient data are less homogeneous and less sure)
On this trend for a long time term has been hypothesized the possibility of an
also secular cycle superimposed to that of 11 years.
trend of the total flux of the sun and the number of the sunspots are between
them in synchronous relationship, and the atmospheric ionization varied in
proportion with them; for this proportionality, at the effects of the ionization,
is used the index of sunspot, rather than their number; the practical formula is:
K (10 g + S)
number index of the sunspots
groups of sunspot
empirical coefficient of proportionality.
is called number of the sunspots, while would be defined like "number index
of the sunspots”.