The amateur radio activity, started in the first years of the XX century, is a most ancient activity in telecommunications field.
definition of the Amateur Radio Service in the International
Telecommunications rule by International Telecommunications
Union (I.T.U.), tells:
the amateur radio transmission must be
personal and treating technical matters; they must have scarce
importance to don't justify the use of telephonic, telegraphic and
The Administrations of each country establish the
technical qualifications to release the radio operator licenses and
define the amateur radio operational
conditions.Purpose of the national rules:
recognize the value of the voluntary non commercial telecommunication
service, particularly in cases of emergency and calamity;
b) recognize the amateur radio ability contribute to the progress of the radio;
c) encourage the amateur radio with rules that provide to bettering the operational ability and technique;
d) increase the quality of the operators and technical experienced in the radio field;
e) give the possibility to better the friendship and the international
The Amateur Radio Service is the only way that allows to the people, distant many kilometers, to meet and know.
is the general formulation of the Amateur Radio Service activity
of I.T.U. and I.A.R.U. (International Amateur Radio Union), the
corporate body constituted from the union of the Amateur Radio
Associations of the world.
This is therefore the image that each
Amateur Radio must furnish to maintain his representative qualification
of an important telecommunications
The dawn of the amateur radio
amateur radio begins with the physical phenomenons studied by Maxwell
and Hertz. Subsequently Guglielmo Marconi puts all in practical
application. With the own intuitions, in 1895, Marconi develops the
first system of telecommunication, invent the antenna and
transmitting and receiving messages by radio. In 1898 connects Dover
(England) and Vimereux (France) through the British channel; in 1901,
the S letter, three points of the Morse alphabet, through the Atlantic
Ocean between Cornwall (Poldhu) and St. John's - Newfoundland (Canada).
first amateurs experimenters, receive the news that 3400 km of ocean,
contrary to the affirmations of the official science, was jumped by the
Many rudimentary transmitters and receivers was built
in Europe and in America; the amateur radio movement started in all
countries, until to arrive at his official
Who are the Amateur Radio
majority are people that don't work in the field of the radio; but
there is also technical professional that work in the electronic radio
The Amateur Radio are prevalently masculine, but there are also feminine enthusiastic Amateur Radio.
The Amateur Radio in the world overcome 2 million today, three quarters are in Japan and U.S.A.
In Italy, the number of licenses is about 36000.
A license authorizes the Amateur Radio to communicate with Morse code (telegraphy) or by means the language (telephone).
Amateur Radio use also teleprinter, television and digital
transmission, encoded according to the more common standards. The
Amateur Radio transmissions are on the assigned frequency by the
international conventions. The license is issued by the government (in
Italy, Ministero delle Comunicazioni). The transmission license,
establishes the frequencies and transmission power and assigns a
personal call sign to any Amateur Radio.
The prefix (the first part of the call sign) was assigned by the I.T.U. rules.
The last part of the call sign is composed by three letters and are assigned by "Ministero delle Comunicazioni".
obtain the transmission license need get first the radio operator
licence; to obtain the radio operator licence need to pass an exam
at Ministero delle Comunicazioni.
The examination is theoretical and practical, need also transmit and receive with the Morse code.
National and international organizations
I.T.U., International Telecommunications Union, founded in 1865, is a
specialized sector of the United Nations and his activity is divided in
three Regions of the world.
The region 1 with Europe, Africa, the ex
U.R.S.S. and few parts of Asia (Italy belongs to this region); the
Region 2 with America; the region 3 with Asia and the rest of the
The Amateurs Radio of the world are organized in National Associations.
National Associations are part of the I.A.R.U., International Amateur
Radio Union, founded in 1925 to represent and coordinate the activity
in the world, especially towards the Governments.
Associazione Radioamatori Italiani (already Associazione Radiotecnica
Italiana), founded in 1927 and erect in Moral corporate body in 1950 is
the Association that represents around 20.000 Amateur Radio.
The Amateur Radio showed the utility of the short
waves, unused before, for big distances.
Since 1923, in the administrative worlds meeting
(WARC), the governments tried to deprive Amateur Radio of the own frequencies
The utility shown by Amateur Radio Service avoid to suffer cuts in Amateur Radio
The Amateur Radio and technical progress
The experimentation of Amateur activity given a considerable contribution to the development of radio
Many circuits was developed and improved by Amateur Radio; new techniques and new frequencies are worth by Amateur Radio.
The Amateur Radio participated in spatial
researches, constituting an enormous listener radio organization. From the first Sputnik
(November 1957), to the construction of repeating transceivers stations installed on
satellites. The study of electromagnetic waves are develops with good results:
auroras, meteoric swarms, etc. Also the unexplored zones of the high
frequency, the microwaves.
The Amateur Radio associations realized an important technical literature on most varied technique of the radio communications
publish monthly magazines where described technical, operational and
associative appearances of the Amateur Radio activity and
manuals, guides with elementary theory and more specialistic and
The international friendship
The Amateur Radio represents an unique occasion to make friendships "in air".
In each nation during the year having many meetings possibility in occasion of the frequent
The social appearance
many decades the Amateur Radio are available also with they operational
ability and technical preparation to intervene in places with emergency
The Amateur Radio arrive always first and organize radio contact in each disaster due to earthquakes and
Many people with physical handicap find and make many friends in Amateur Radio
The Amateur Radio future
Amateur Radio Service will continue to go on if the public
administrations will continue to recognize the irreplaceable Amateur
An efficient Amateur Radio movement in the countries in development could constitute an important reserve of technical operator.
The responsible Authorities recognized the Amateur Service as an effective method to give a technical education at least cost.
That is particularly important in underdeveloped
nations, that don't arrange otherwise the possibility to provide for this
The Amateur Radio in Italy
Guglielmo Marconi could be considered the first Amateur Radio of the world, not only by a scientific
point, but also chronological point; an Amateur Radio that also was the first
President, in 1927, of the dawning Association which gathered the precursors of the Italian Amateur Radio.
In Italy this activity came looked with suspect from the
authorities, and the Amateur Radio, between prohibitions, sequestrations and
injustices, maintained their passion in an atmosphere of clandestinity life.
In 1946 the allied authorities of
occupation, in whose countries the Amateur Radio movement was developed meantime, uttered the first provisional
the return of the powers to the Italian authorities, introduced again
restrictions on the activities of the Amateur Radio. The history
is always the
These restrictions was very bitter because in other States were grant more
Associazione Radiotecnica Italiana, subsequently erect in Moral
corporate body (1950), began an along and often hard job to sensitize
the public administration about the Amateur Radio problems and his
considerable importance in national interest.
came, also earthquakes: from Polesine to Firenze, to Sicilia, to
Irpinia. For the first turns the chronicle discover the Amateur Radio,
these hidden private citizens able to replace the officials nets
telecommunication interrupted or
The organs of the State began to understand about the
utility of the Amateur Radio Service and they work in more unexpected
conditions and with fortune
means, they realized what the powerful, but slow official machine, is
not sure able to
For 48 hours the unique communications with flooded Firenze, for
instance, was realized by Amateur Radio.
In many cases an appeal for medicinal launched by the Amateur Radio allowed to save human
lives, or at least to assuage the sufferings.