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Chapter 724.   nanoBase 1997 user manual

nB(1) (``nano Base'': ``n'' = ``nano'' = 10**(-9) = ``very little'') is a little Dos xBase written in Clipper 5.2 that can help to access .DBF file created with different standards.

nB is:

724.1   Dos xBase

This section is a brief description of the functionality of a typical Dos xBase.

The first purpose of a xBase program is to handle data inside a .DBF file. These files may be indexed with the help of index files and more .DBF files may be linked with a relation to obtain something like a relational database.

724.1.1   .DBF files

.DBF files are files organised in a table structure:

.--------------------------.
| field1 | field2 | field3 |  record1
|--------|--------|--------|
|        |        |        |  record2
|--------|--------|--------|
|        |        |        |  record3
|--------|--------|--------|
|        |        |        |  record4
|--------|--------|--------|
|        |        |        |  record5
|--------|--------|--------|
|        |        |        |  record6
`--------------------------'

The lines of this table are records and the columns are fields. Records are numbered starting from the first that is number 1.

Columns are defined as fields and fields are distinguished by name and these names are saved inside the .DBF file.

Every field (column) can contain only one specified kind of data with a specified dimension:

No other field type is available for a typical xBase .DBF file.

To access the data contained inside a .DBF file the following list of action may be followed:

Before you go further, you have to understand that:

724.1.2   Index files

.DBF files are organised with record number, that is, you can reach a specific record and not a specific information unless that you scan record by record.

To obtain to "see" a .DBF file somehow logically ordered (when physically it is not), index files are used.

A index file, also called INDEX BAG, is a file that contains one or more indexes

Indexes are rules by which a .DBF file may be seen ordered.

A typical index file may contain only one index.

A index file may have the following extention:

Every index file may be used only in association with the .DBF for what it was made. The problem is that normally there is no way to avoid errors when the user try to associate the right .DBF file with the wrong index.

To access the data contained inside a .DBF file the following list of action may be followed:

Before you go further, you have to understand that:

724.1.3   Relations

Many .DBF files with indexes may be opened simultaneously. Data contained inside more .DBF files may be somehow connected together. See the example.

.----------------------------------------.
| Date | Time IN | Time OUT | Employee # |
|------|---------|-----------------------|
| xxxx | xxxxxxx | xxxxxxxx |      01    | -------->.
|------|---------|----------|------------|          |
| yyyy | yyyyyyy | yyyyyyyy |      02    |          |
|------|---------|----------|------------|          |
| zzzz | zzzzzzz | zzzzzzzz |      01    | -------->|
`----------------------------------------'          |
[...]                                               |
                                                    |
         .<-----------------------------------------'
         |
         |
         |        .--------------------------------------.
         |        | Employee # | Name    | Address |.....|
         |        |------------|---------|---------|-----|
         `------->|   01       | aaaaaaa | aaaaaaa |.....|
                  |------------|---------|---------|-----|
                  |   02       | bbbbbbb | bbbbbbb |.....|
                  |------------|---------|---------|-----|
                  |   03       | ccccccc | ccccccc |.....|
                  `--------------------------------------'

The first .DBF file contains some data that refers to an Employee number that may appear repeated on more records.

Employee informations are stored inside another .DBF file that contains only one record for every employee.

Establishing a relation from the first .DBF file to the second, moving the record pointer of the first .DBF file, that is the first alias, the record pointer of the second, the child alias, is moved automatically to the record containing the right data.

The relation is an expression that should result in a number if the child alias is opened without index, or in a valid index key if the child alias is opened with an index.

To relate two .DBF files the following list of action may be followed:

As may be seen, relations are not saved inside files, but are obtained with lines of code.

724.2   Composition

nB is composed from the following files, where xx is the the version code.

NBASExx1.ZIP EXEs for small PCs
NBASExx2.ZIP Runtime EXEs for small PCs
NBASExx3.ZIP EXEs for i286 with 2M+
NBASExx4.ZIP DOCs
NBASExx5.ZIP EXAMPLEs
NBASExx6.ZIP SRCs for version 96.06.16
NBASExx7.ZIP SRCs for the current version

Every archive file contains:

COPYING.TXT GNU General Public License version 2 in Dos text format.
README.TXT the readme file.
FILE_ID.DIZ definition.

The file NBASExx1.ZIP contains also the following files.

NB.EXE the executable program for DBFNTX and DBFNDX files, linked with RTLINK.
NB.HLP this manual in "Help Text File" format.

The file NBASExx2.ZIP contains also the following files.

NB.EXE the run-time to execute macro programs for DBFNTX and DBFNDX files handling, linked with RTLINK.

The file NBASExx3.ZIP contains also the following files.

NB.EXE the executable program for DBFCDX, DBFMDX, DBFNDX and DBFNTX files, linked with EXOSPACE.
NB.HLP the user manual in "Help Text File" format.

The file NBASExx4.ZIP contains also the following files.

NB.PRN the user manual in printed text format.
NB.RTF the user manual in RTF format.
NB.TXT the user manual in ASCII text format.
NB.HTM the user manual in HTML format.

The file NBASExx5.ZIP contains also the following files.

_ADDRESS.DBF an example database file.
_ADDRESS.NTX index file associated to _ADDRESS.DBF.
_ADDRESS.LBL a label form file used to print data contained inside _ADDRESS.DBF .
_ADDRESS.FRM a report form file used to print data contained inside _ADDRESS.DBF .
_ADDRESS.RPT a RPT text file used to print data contained inside _ADDRESS.DBF .
_MAINMNU.& a macro program source example of a menu that executes some others macro programs. This example is made to demonstrate how nB can execute directly a source code without compiling it. This example is made only to taste it: it is very slow and only a speedy machine can give the idea of it.
0MAINMNU.& a macro program source example of a menu that executes some others macro programs. It is the same as _MAINMNU.& but it is made to start the execution of the compiled macros.
0MAINMNU.NB compiled macro program 0MAINMNU.&
0MAINMNU.BAT a batch file to show how to run the execution of 0MAINMNU.NB
1ADDRESS.& a macro program source example for handling a .DBF file containing addresses in various ways.
1ADDRESS.NB compiled macro 1ADDRESS.& .
2ADDRESS.& a macro program source example for handling a .DBF file containing addresses in various ways: a little bit more complicated than 1ADDRESS.&.
2ADDRESS.NB compiled macro 2ADDRESS.& .
3ADDRESS.& a macro program source example for handling a .DBF file containing addresses in various ways: a little bit more complicated than 2ADDRESS.& .
3ADDRESS.NB compiled macro 3ADDRESS.&.
4ADDRESS.& a macro program source example for handling a .DBF file containing addresses in various ways: a little bit more complicated than 3ADDRESS.& .
4ADDRESS.NB compiled macro 4ADDRESS.& .
ABIORITM.& a macro program source example for calculating the personal bio wave.
ABIORITM.NB compiled macro ABIORITM.& .
_STUDENT.DBF a .DBF file used inside the BSTUDENT macro example.
_STUDENT.NTX index file used for _STUDENT.DBF .
_STUDSTD.DBF a .DBF file used inside the BSTUDENT macro example.
_STUDENT.RPT a RPT text file used to print data contained inside _STUDENT.DBF .
_STUDSTD.RPT a RPT text file used to print data contained inside _STUDSTD.DBF .
BSTUDENT.& a macro program source example for students evaluation: a description about students is obtained linking other standard descriptions.
BSTUDENT.NB compiled macro BSTUDENT.& .
CBATMAKE.& a macro program source example to generate a batch file to be used to back up an entire hard disk.
CBATMAKE.NB compiled macro CBATMAKE.& .
BROWSE.& a macro program source example to start an automatic browse.
BROWSE.NB compiled macro BROWSE.& .
BROWSE.BAT batch file to start a .DBF browse with the BROWSE macro program.
MENU.& a macro program source example for a Dos menu.
MENU.NB compiled macro MENU.& .
MENU.BAT batch file to use the MENU macro.

The file NBASExx6.ZIP contains also the following files: source code for the version 96.06.16.

NB.PRG the main source file for version 96.06.16.
NB_REQ.PRG the source file containing links to all the standard functions.
NB.LNK link file for compilation.
NB_NRMAL.RMK rmake file to compile with RTLink.
NB_EXOSP.RMK rmake file to compile with Exospace.
NB_RUNTI.RMK rmake file to compile with RTLink defining RUNTIME to obtain a small nB runtime version.
MACRO.LNK link file to compile and link a macro.
MACRO.RMK rmake file to compile and link a macro.

The file NBASExx7.ZIP contains also the following files: source code for the current version.

NB.PRG the main source file.
REQUEST.PRG the source file containing links to all the Clipper functions.
STANDARD.PRG the source file for standard functions.
EXTRA.PRG the source file for other standard functions.
STANDARD.CH general include file that substitutes all include file normally used for normal Clipper compilations.
NB.CH include file specific for nB.
NB.LNK link file for compilation.
NB_RUNTI.LNK link file for runtime compilation.
NB_NRMAL.RMK rmake file to compile with RTLink.
NB_EXOSP.RMK rmake file to compile with Exospace.
NB_RUNTI.RMK rmake file to compile with RTLink defining RUNTIME to obtain a small nB runtime version.
MACRO.CH include file to compile and link a macro.
MACRO.LNK link file to compile and link a macro.
MACRO.RMK rmake file to compile and link a macro.
CLIPMOUSE.ZIP a simple free library for mouse support under Clipper (c) 1992 Martin Brousseau.

724.3   How to use nB

nB normal syntax is:

nB [nB_parameters] [macro_filename] [macro_parameters]

To run nB, just type the word "NB" and press [Enter] to execute. It will run in command mode, this means that it will look like an old xBASE command prompt.

To run the program as a macro interpreter, type the word NB followed from the macro file name with extention (no default extention is supposed). If parameters are given, after the macro file name, these will be available inside the public variables: c_Par1, c_Par2, ..., c_Par9. c_Par0 will contain the macro file name (see the macro file BROWSE.&). nB will terminate execution when the macro terminates.

These parameters are available for nB:

-c Suppress the copyright notice. It is usefull when using nB for macro interpretation.
-w Suppress the "Wait-Wheel" if not desired. It is the "Wheel" that appears at top-left when a macro is interpreted or other long elaborations are executed.
-? Shows a short help.

nB macro "compilation" syntax is:

nB -m source_macro_filename [destination_macro_filename]

With the -m parameter, nB "compiles" the ASCII source_macro_filename into destination_macro_filename.

724.4   Status line

nB shows a "status line" at the top of the screen when the nB command prompt or the menu system is active. It shows some important informations.

| |DBFNTX    ||*|  1|ADDRESS   |     1/     4|ADDRESS.NTX |
 |  |          |  |    |             |      |
 |  |          |  |    |             |      |
 |  |          |  |    |             |    Last record (7).
 |  |          |  |    |             |
 |  |          |  |    |           Record pointer position (6).
 |  |          |  |    |
 |  |          |  |   Active alias (5).
 |  |          |  |
 |  |          |  Current Work Area (4)
 |  |          |
 |  |          Deleted record appearance (3)
 |  |
 |  Actual default database driver (2).
 |
 Macro recorder indicator (1).
|     1/     4|ADDRESS.NTX |  1|ADDRESS   |
                |             |   |
                |             |   |
                |             |  Order Tag Name (10)
                |             |
                |           Order number (9)
                |
               Order Bag name (8)

(1) This is the place for the macro recorder indicator. The symbol used is "&". Blank means that the macro recorder is OFF; & blinking means that the macro recorder is ON; & fixed means that the macro recorder is PAUSED.

(2) The name of the default database driver. It is not necessarily the database driver for the active alias; it is only the database driver that will be used for the next open/create operation.

(3) An asterisk (*) at this position indicates that SET DELETED is OFF. This means that deleted records are not filtered. When a BLANK is in this place, SET DELETED is ON, so that deleted records are filtered.

(4) The active work area number, that is, the area of the active alias.

(5) The active alias name. Note that the alias name is not necessarily equal to the .DBF file name.

(6) The actual record pointer position for the active alias.

(7) The number of records contained inside the active alias.

(8) The Order Bag name; that is the index file name.

(9) The order number.

(10) The order tag (name). When DBFNTX database driver is used, it correspond to the Order Bag name.

724.5   The dot line

Starting nB without parameters, the dot line appears. This is the place where commands in form of functions may be written and executed like a old xBase.

The functions written inside the command line that don't result in an error, are saved inside a history list. This history list may be recalled with [F2] and then the selected history line may be reused (eventually edited). Key [up]/[down] may be used to scroll inside the history list without showing the all list with [F2].

[Enter] is used to tell nB to execute the written function.

As the dot line is not an easy way to use such a program, a menu is available pressing [F10] or [Alt M]. The [F10] key starts the ASSIST() menu. This menu may be started also entering the name of the function: "ASSIST()".

nB includes a simple built-in text editor: DOC(). It may be started from the dot line entering "DOT()". No special key is dedicated to start this function.

724.6   The menu system

The nB menu system appears differently depending on the place where it is "called". When available, the menu system appears pressing [Alt M] or [F10].

The Menu system is organised into horizontal menu, vertical menu, and pop-up menu.

The horizontal menu contains selectable items organised horizontally:

     One Two Three Four Five

The cursor may be moved on a different position using arrow keys [Left]/[Right]; [Esc] terminates the menu; [Enter] opens a vertical menu.

The vertical menu contains selectable items organised vertically:

 One Two Three Four Five
.----------.
|First     |
|Second    |
|Third     |
`----------'

The cursor may be moved on a different position using arrow keys [Up]/[Down]; the arrow keys [Left]/[Right] change the vertical menu; [Esc] closes the vertical the menu; [Enter] starts the selected menu function.

The vertical menu contains selectable items organised vertically:

 One Two Three Four Five
.----------.
|First     |
|Second   >|--------------.
|Third     |Sub function 1|
`----------|Sub function 2|
           `--------------'

The cursor may be moved on a different position using arrow keys [Up]/[Down]; [Esc] closes the pop-up the menu; [Enter] starts the selected menu function.

The following sections describe the menu system.

724.6.1   Menu File

The menu File contains important function on .DBF file, indexes, relations and Replaceable database drivers.

For database files are considered two aspects: the physical aspect, and the logical alias. When a .DBF file is opened, it becomes a alias.

Indexes are considered as index files and index orders.

It follows a brief menu function description.

Change directory

Changes the actual drive and directory.

File .DBF

Contains a pop-up menu for .DBF operations.

New .DBF

A .DBF file is a table where columns, called Fields, must be specified and lines, called records, are added, edited and deleted by the program.

Field characteristics are:

NAME the field name must be unique inside the same file, it is composed of letters, number and underscore (_), but it must start with a letter and it is not case sensitive.
TYPE the field type determinates the type of data it can hold.
LENGTH is the field total length in characters; it doesn't matter of the type of data.
DECIMAL is the length of positions after decimal point. This information is used normally for numeric fields. In this case, take note that the DECIMAL length, together with the decimal point, will subtract space for the integer part of the number from the total LENGTH of the filed.

Field Types:

C Character it is a text field long LENGTH characters.
N Numeric it is a numeric field long LENGTH characters with DECIMAL characters for decimal positions. Note that if LENGTH is 4 and DECIMAL is 0 (zero), the field may contain integers from -999 to 9999; but if LENGTH is 4 and DECIMAL 1, the field may contain numbers from -9.9 to 99.9: two position for the integer part, one position for the decimal point and one position for decimal.
D Date it is a date field: it contains only dates; the length should not be specified as it is automatically 8.
L Logic it is a logical (boolean) field: it contains only TRUE, represented by "Y" or "T", or FALSE, represented by "N" or "F". The length should not be specified as it is automatically 1.
M Memo it is a character field with unknown dimension. It is recorded into a parallel file with .DBT extention. The original .DBF file holds a space for a pointer inside the .DBT file. The length of a Memo field is automatically 10 and is referred to the memo pointer.

After the function "NEW .DBF" is selected, a table for the field specifications appears.

+--------------------------------+
|    Database file structure     |
|                                |
| Field Name Type Length Decimal |
|--------------------------------|
|           |    |     0|      0 |
|           |    |      |        |
|           |    |      |        |
|           |    |      |        |
|           |    |      |        |
|           |    |      |        |
|           |    |      |        |

To navigate and to edit the table use the following keys:

[Up]/[Down]/[Left][Right] move the cursor one position (up, down, left or right);
[PgUp] move to previous screen page;
[PgDn] move to next screen page;
[Ctrl PgUp] move to top of table;
[Ctrl PgDn] move to bottom of table;
[Ctrl Home] move to first column;
[Ctrl End] move to last column;
[Ctrl Enter] append a new empty line;
[Ctrl F1] delete (cut) the current line and save a copy into the "clipboard";
[Ctrl F2] copy current line into the table "clipboard";
[Ctrl F3] insert (paste) the content of the "clipboard" in the current position;
[Enter] start editing in the current position;
[Esc] terminate;
[x] any other key will be written in the current position.

When the editing is terminated, press [Esc] and a dialog box will ask for the file name and the RDD.

xBase files (.DBF) are not all equal, this way, when a new .DBF file si created, the RDD (Replaceable Database Driver) is asked. The normal RDD is DBFNTX, the one used by Clipper.

Modify .DBF structure

The modification of a .DBF file structure is a delicate matter if it contains data.

In fact, it is a data transfer from a source .DBF file to a destination .DBF file with a different structure. This way, the destination .DBF will be updated only for the fields with the same name of the source one. The position may be different, but names cannot be changed (not so easily).

Mistakes may be dangerous, so, before doing it, it is recommended a backup copy of the original .DBF file.

Open .DBF

When a .DBF file is opened, it becomes a alias, a logical file, placed inside a work area. The same .DBF file may be opened inside different areas with different alias names.

The required information to open the file are:

FILENAME the physical file name.
ALIAS the alias name. If not assigned, it becomes automatically the same of FILENAME without extention.
RDD the Replaceable Database Driver to use to access to this file.
SHARED a logical value: TRUE means that the file will be accessible to other users, FALSE means use exclusive.
READ ONLY a logical value: TRUE means that the file will be only readable and no modification will be allowed, FALSE means that no restriction on editing will be made.
File .NTX

Contains a pop-up menu for physical indexes operations.

New .NTX / new tag

If the active area is used we have an active alias. In this case a index may be created. The index is a way to see the active alias ordered without changing the physical position of records.

There are two words to understand: ORDER and INDEX-BAG. The index bag is the file that contains the information on the record ordering, the order is the rule followed to order the records. A index bag may contains one or more orders depending on the Replaceable Database Driver in use.

Typical .NTX file are index bag containing only one order.

Depending on the RDD in use the following field may be filled.

INDEX FILENAME this is the name of the index bag.
KEY EXPRESSION the expression that defines the rule for the record ordering.
ORDER NAME this is the name to give to the order (tag) when the RDD permits to have a index bag containing more than one order. In the other case, the index bag name correspond to the order name.
FOR EXPRESSION a FOR condition to filter records before indexing.
Open index

If a index file already exists, it can be associated to the active alias simply opening it.

Take note that the system is not able to verify if the index belong the active alias and if it is not so a error will result.

INDEX NAME is the name of the index bag file to open.
Alias

Contains a pop-up menu for logical databases (alias) operations.

Select

Only one may be the active alias and with this function the active alias may be changed choosing from the list of used areas.

Selecting the area number zero, no alias is active.

Display structure

With this function the active alias structure may be viewed.

Close active alias

Selecting this function the active alias is closed. That is: the .DBF file and eventual indexes are closed.

Close all aliases

With this function all Aliases are closed.

Order

Contains a pop-up menu for logical indexes (orders).

Order list rebuild

This function rebuild the indexes opened and associated to the active alias.

Order set focus

This function permits to change the active order selecting form the ones opened and associated to the active alias.

Order list clear

This function closes all orders associated to the active alias.

Relation

Contains a pop-up menu for relations (links with other Aliases).

Set relation

This function permits to establish a relation between a alias and a Child alias showing as a result a unique database.

CHILD is the alias name to connect to the active alias.
EXPRESSION is the relation expression that specify the rule for the relation. The value of this expression is the key to access the Child alias: if this Child alias is accessed without index, it must be the record number, if this Child alias is accessed via index, it must be a valid index key.
Clear relation

This function eliminates any relation that originate form the active alias.

RDD default

Contains a pop-up menu for Replaceable Database Driver defaults.

Show actual RDD default

It simply shows the actual Replaceable Database Driver.

Set default RDD

Select a new default Replaceable Database Driver.

724.6.2   Menu Edit

The menu Edit contains functions to access data from the active alias (the actual area).

View

This function permits you to view the active alias with eventual relations as a table.

No edit is allowed.

To navigate the table use the following keys.

[Enter] start field editing.
[PgUp] show previous screen page.
[PgDn] show next screen page.
[Ctrl PgUp] show top of alias.
[Ctrl PgDn] show bottom of file.
[Ctrl Home] show the first column.
[Ctrl End] show last column.
Edit/browse

This function permits you to edit the active alias with eventual relations as a table.

To navigate and edit the table use the following keys.

[Enter] start field editing.
[PgUp] show previous screen page.
[PgDn] show next screen page.
[Ctrl PgUp] show top of alias.
[Ctrl PgDn] show bottom of file.
[Ctrl Home] show the first column.
[Ctrl End] show last column.
[Ctrl Enter] append a new empty record.
[Ctrl F2] copy the current record.
[Ctrl F3] append and paste a record.
[Ctrl F4] paste a previously copied record, overwriting the content of the current one.
[Ctrl Y] delete or recall the current record.
[Ctrl Del] delete or recall the current record.

When a memo field is edited:

[Esc] cancel and close the memo window.
[Ctrl Y] line delete.
[Ctrl W] save and close the memo window.
Replace

The content of a Field of the active alias may be replaced with an expression.

The required data is:

FIELD TO REPLACE the Field name to be replaced.
NEW VALUE EXPRESSION the expression that obtain the new value for the selected Field.
WHILE EXPRESSION the WHILE condition expression: the replacement continue until this expression results True. The constant .T. is ever True and is the default.
FOR EXPRESSION the FOR condition expression: the replacement is made for all records that satisfy the condition. The constant .T. is ever True and is the default.
Recall

The records signed for deletion (deleted but still there), may be recalled (undeleted).

The required data is:

WHILE EXPRESSION the WHILE condition expression: the record recall continue until this expression results True. The constant .T. is ever True and is the default.
FOR EXPRESSION the FOR condition expression: the record recall is made for all records that satisfy the condition. The constant .T. is ever True and is the default.
Delete

Deletes (sign for deletion) a group of record depending on the required conditions.

The required data is:

WHILE EXPRESSION the WHILE condition expression: the record deletion continue until this expression results True. The constant .T. is ever True and is the default.
FOR EXPRESSION the FOR condition expression: the record deletion is made for all records that satisfy the condition. The constant .T. is ever True and is the default.
Pack

This function eliminates definitely records previously deleted (signed for deletion).

It may work only if the active alias was opened in exclusive mode.

724.6.3   Menu Report

The menu Report contains functions for data report (print). In particular, label files .LBL and report file .RPT may be created and used for printing. There is also another way to print, with the RPT() system that is available inside the nB internal editor DOC().

DBGOTOP()

Moves the record pointer for the active alias at the first logical record.

New label

With this function can be created a standard label file (.LBL under the dBaseIII standard).

Labels may be printed in more than one column and can contain 16 lines maximum.

The label data is the following.

REMARK a label remark that will not be printed.
HEIGHT the label vertical dimension.
WIDTH the label horizontal dimension.
MARGIN the left margin in characters.
LINES the vertical spacing between labels.
SPACES the horizontal spacing between labels in characters.
ACROSS the number of label columns.
LINE 1 The first line inside labels.
LINE n The n-th line inside labels.
LINE 16 The 16th line inside labels.

The number of lines inside the labels depend on the HEIGHT and the maximum value is 16.

The label lines can contain constant string and/or string expressions.

See the example below.

  Margin
<-->
    XXXXXXX|XXXXXXXX    XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX    XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX
    XXXXXXX|XXXXXXXX    XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX    XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX
    XXXX Height XXXX    <--- Width ---->    XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX
    XXXXXXX|XXXXXXXX    XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX    XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX
    XXXXXXX|XXXXXXXX    XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX    XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX
                           |
                           | Lines      <-->
                           |              Spaces
    XX Line 1 XXXXXX    XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX    XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX
    XX Line 2 XXXXXX    XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX    XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX
    XX Line 3 XXXXXX    XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX    XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX
    XX Line 4 XXXXXX    XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX    XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX
    XX Line 5 XXXXXX    XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX    XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX



    XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX    XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX    XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX
    XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX    XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX    XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX
    XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX    XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX    XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX
    XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX    XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX    XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX
    XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX    XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX    XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX
            |                   |                   |
            |                   |                   |
            |                   |                   |
            +---------------- Across ---------------+
Modify label

This function permits you to modify a label file.

Label form

This function permits you to print labels with the data provided by the active alias: one label each record.

The following data is required.

LABEL FILENAME the label filename.
WHILE the WHILE condition: the label printing goes on as long as this condition remain True.
FOR the FOR condition: only the records from the active alias that satisfy the condition are used for the label print.
New report

This function permits you to create a standard report form file (.FRM under the dBaseIII standard).

The informations to create a .FRM file are divided into two parts: the head and groups; the columns.

The first part: head and groups, requires the folliwing informations:

PAGE WIDTH the page width in characters.
LINES PER PAGE the usable lines per page.
LEFT MARGIN the left margin in characters.
DOUBLE SPACED? double spaced print, yes or no.
PAGE EJECT BEFORE PRINT? form feed before print, yes or no.
PAGE EJECT AFTER PRINT? form feed after print, yes or no.
PLAIN PAGE? plain page, yes or no.
PAGE HEADER the page header, max 4 lines (the separation between one line and the other is obtained writing a semicolon, ";").
GROUP HEADER the group title.
GROUP EXPRESSION the group expression (when it changes, the group changes)
SUMMARY REPORT ONLY? only totals and no columns, yes or no.
PAGE EJECT AFTER GROUP? form feed when the group changes, yes or no.
SUB GROUP HEADER sub group title.
SUB GROUP EXPRESSION the sub group expression.

The second part: columns, requires the following informations structured in table form:

COLUMN HEADER column head description (it can contain 4 lines separated with a semicolon).
CONTENT the column expression.
WIDTH the column width.
DEC. the decimal length for numeric columns.
TOTALS totals to be calculated, yes or no (usefull only for numeric columns).

To navigate and to edit the table use the following keys:

[Up]/[Down]/[Left][Right] move the cursor one position (up, down, left or right);
[PgUp] move to previous screen page;
[PgDn] move to next screen page;
[Ctrl PgUp] move to top of table;
[Ctrl PgDn] move to bottom of table;
[Ctrl Home] move to first column;
[Ctrl End] move to last column;
[Ctrl Enter] append a new empty line;
[Ctrl F1] delete (cut) the current line and save a copy into the "clipboard";
[Ctrl F2] copy current line into the table "clipboard";
[Ctrl F3] insert (paste) the content of the "clipboard" in the current position;
[Enter] start editing in the current position;
[Esc] terminate;
[x] any other key will be written in the current position.

When the editing is terminated, press [Esc] and a dialog box will ask for the name to give to the report form file.

Modify report

This function permits you to modify a standard report form file (.FRM under the dBaseIII standard).

Report form

This function permits you to print a report form with the data provided by the active alias.

The following data is required.

REPORT FORM FILENAME the label filename.
WHILE the WHILE condition: the form printing goes on as long as this condition remain True.
FOR the FOR condition: only the records from the active alias that satisfy the condition are used for the report form print.
Create/modify/print text

This function activates the text editor.

724.6.4   Menu HTF

The menu Htf helps on creating and accessing the "Help Text Files". This name, help text file, is just the name given to it.

A text (Ascii) file prepared like this manual may be transformed into a "Help Text File" that is a simple text with pointers.

Open help text file

This function permits to open a Help Text File and browse it. The Help Text File name is required.

New help text file

This function permits to create a new "Help Text File" that is a help file under the nB style.

The source is an Ascii file where three kind of information are available: Normal text, Indexes and pointers.

Indexes and Pointers are word or phrases delimited with user defined delimiters; indexes are placed inside the text to indicate an argument, pointers are placed inside the text to indicate a reference to indexes.

Inside this manual, indexes are delimited with ## and ##, so the titles are here indexes; pointers are delimited with < and >.

Only one index per line is allowed, only one pointer per line is allowed.

The Delimiters used do identify indexes and pointers are user defined; the _start_ identifier symbol can be equal to the _end_ identifier symbol. The symbols used for indexes cannot be used for the pointers.

So, the informations required are:

SOURCE TEXT FILENAME the filename of the text source file.
DESTINATION FILENAME the filename of the destination Help Text File (suggested .HLP extention).
INDEX START CODE the index start symbol; suggested ##.
INDEX END CODE the index end symbol; suggested ##.
POINTER START CODE the pointer start symbol; suggested <.
POINTER END CODE the pointer end symbol; suggested >.
New HTML file

This function permits to create a new HTML file form a text file formatted to obtain a HTF file.

The informations required are:

SOURCE TEXT FILENAME the filename of the text source file.
DESTINATION FILENAME the filename of the destination Help Text File (suggested .HLP extention).
INDEX START CODE the index start symbol; suggested ##.
INDEX END CODE the index end symbol; suggested ##.
POINTER START CODE the pointer start symbol; suggested <.
POINTER END CODE the pointer end symbol; suggested >.
HTML TITLE the title for the html page.

724.6.5   Menu Macro

The menu Macro helps on creating macros (programs) with a macro recorder, a macro "compiler" and a macro executor.

Start recording

This function simply starts or pause the macro recording. The menu items that end with "&", may be recorded by this macro recorder.

Save recording

A recorded macro may be saved into a ASCII file that may be later modified or simply used as it is. The filename is requested.

Erase recording

While recording or when the macro recorder is paused, it is possible to erase all previous recording with this function.

Edit recording

While recording or when the macro recorder is paused, it is possible to edit all previous recording, for example adding more comments or simply to see what the recorder does.

Macro compilation

A macro file (a program) contained inside a ASCII file, may be compiled into a different file format to speed up execution. The source filename and the destination filename are requested.

Load + execute macro

A macro file (a program) in ASCII form or compiled, may be executed.

A macro file may require some parameters.

This function asks for the macro filename to start and the possible parameter to pass to it.

724.6.6   Menu Info

The menu Info is the information menu.

ABOUT a brief copyright notice.
MANUAL BROWSE starts the browse of NB.HLP , the nB Help Text File manual if it is present in the current directory or it is found in the PATH (the Dos SET PATH).
[F1] HELP [F1] reminder.
[F3] ALIAS INFO [F3] reminder. It shows all the available information on the active alias.
[F5] SET OUTPUT TO [F5] reminder. It defines the output peripheral or file.

724.6.7   Menu Doc

This menu actually appears only inside the DOC() function, the nB text editor.

New

It starts the editing of a new empty text.

Open

It opens for editing a new textfile.

Save

It saves the text file under editing.

Save as

It saves the text file under editing asking for a new name.

Set output to

It permits to change the default output peripheral: the default is the screen.

Print as it is

It prints on the output peripheral the content of the text as it is.

Print with RPT() once

It prints on the output peripheral the content of the text only once replacing possible text variables.

Print with RPT() std

It prints on the output peripheral the content of the text repeating this print for every record contained inside the archive alias.

Exit DOC()

Terminates the use of DOC() the text/document editing/print function.

724.7   The text editor DOC()

The function Doc() activates a simple text editor usefull to build some simple reports.

Inside this function a menu is available and is activated pressing [Alt M] or [F10]. The Doc() menu is part of the nB menu system.

DOC() may handle text files of a teorical maximum of 64K.

DOC() may be particularly useful to create formatted text with variables identified by CHR(174) and CHR(175) delimiters: when an active alias exists, [F2] gives a list of insertable fields.

[Esc] Exit DOC().
[F1] Call the help.
[F2] Field list.
[up] / [Ctrl E] Line up.
[down] / [Ctrl X] Line down.
[left] / [Ctrl S] Character left.
[right] / [Ctrl D] Character right.
[Ctrl right] / [Ctrl A] Word left.
[Ctrl left] / [Ctrl F] Word right.
[Home] Line start.
[End] Line end.
[Ctrl Home] Top window.
[Ctrl End] Bottom window.
[PgUp] Previous window.
[PgDn] Next window.
[Ctrl PgUp] Document start.
[Ctrl PgDn] End document.
[Del] Delete character (right).
[Backspace] Delete character Left.
[Tab] Insert tab.
[Ins] Toggle insert/overwrite.
[Enter] Next line.
[Ctrl Y] Delete line.
[Ctrl T] Delete word right.
[F10] / [Alt M] DOC() menu.

724.8   The help text file

nB provides a basic hypertext system to build simple help files. A source text file with "indexes" and "pointers" to indexes is translated into a "help text file" (a .DBF file); then, this file is browsed by nB.

The source file can have a maximum line width of 80 characters; each line can terminate with CR or CR+LF.

"Indexes" are string delimited by index delimiters (default "##"); "pointers" are string delimited by pointer delimiters (default "<" and ">") and refers to indexes.

Inside a text, indexes must be unique; pointers can be repeated anywhere. A text can contain a maximum of 4000 indexes.

Inside this manual, titles are delimited with "##" as they are indexes; strings delimited with "<" and ">" identify a reference to a title with the same string.

To browse a previously created Help Text File, use the following keys:

[Esc] Exit.
[UpArrow] Move cursor up.
[DownArrow] Move cursor down.
[PgUp] Move cursor PageUp.
[PgDn] Move cursor Pagedown.
[Ctrl PgUp] Move cursor Top.
[Ctrl PgDn] Move cursor Bottom.
[Enter] Select a reference (pointer).
[<-] Go to previous selected reference (pointer).
[->] Go to next selected reference (pointer).
[Shift F3] Search for a new pattern.
[F3] Repeat previous search.

724.9   Macro

nB can execute (run) macro files. There may be three kind of macro files: ASCII (usually with .& extention); "compiled" (usually with .NB extention); EXE files (compiled with Clipper and linked).

"Compiled" macro files are executed faster then the ASCII source files.

EXE macro files are the fastest.

724.9.1   Macro statements

The statements recognised from nB are very similar to Clipper, with some restrictions.

Note that: the FOR statement is not included; there is no function declaration; procedure calls cannot transfer variables; only public variables are allowed.

PROCEDURE

Procedures are the basic building blocks of a nB macro.

Procedures are visible only inside the current macro file.

The procedure structure is as follows:

PROCEDURE procedure_name
     statements...
     [RETURN]
     statements...
ENDPROCEDURE

A procedure definition begins with a PROCEDURE declaration followed with the procedure_name and ends with ENDPROCEDURE.

Inside the PROCEDURE - ENDPROCEDURE declaration are placed the executable statements which are executed when the procedure is called.

Inside the PROCEDURE - ENDPROCEDURE declaration, the RETURN statement may appear. In this case, encountering this RETURN statement, the procedure execution is immediately terminated and control is passed to the statement following the calling one.

The procedure definition do not permit to receive parameters from the calling statement.

DO PROCEDURE

There is only one way to call a procedure:

DO PROCEDURE procedure_name

When the statement DO PROCEDURE is encountered, the control is passed to the begin of the called PROCEDURE. After the PROCEDURE execution, the control is returned to the statement following DO PROCEDURE.

The procedure call do not permit to send parameters to the procedure.

BEGIN SEQUENCE

The BEGIN SEQUENCE - END structure permits to define a sequence of operation that may be broken.

Inside nB, this control structure is useful only because there is the possibility to break the execution and pass control over the end of it.

This way, encountering BREAK means: "go to end".

BEGIN SEQUENCE
     statements...
     [BREAK]
     statements...
END

Inside nB, error exception handling is not supported.

DO CASE

This is a control structure where only the statements following a True CASE condition are executed.

When the DO CASE statement is encountered, the following CASE statements are tested. The first time that a condition returns True, the CASE's statements are executed and then control is passed over the END case.

That is: only one CASE is taken into consideration.

If no condition is True, the statements following OTHERWISE are executed.

DO CASE
CASE lCondition1
    statements...
[CASE lCondition2]
    statements...
[OTHERWISE]
    statements...
END
WHILE

The structure WHILE - END defines a loop based on a condition: the loop is repeated until the condition is True.

The loop execution may be broken with the EXIT statement: it transfer control after the END while.

The LOOP statement may be use to repeat the loop: it transfer the control to the beginning of the loop.

WHILE lCondition
     statements...
     [EXIT]
     statements...
     [LOOP]
     statements...
END
IF

The IF - END control structure executes a section of code if a specified condition is True. The structure can also specify alternative code to execute if the condition is False.

IF lCondition1
    statements...
[ELSE]
    statements...
END

724.9.2   Variable declaration

Inside nB, variables are created using a specific function:

MEMPUBLIC( "cVarName" )

For example,

MEMPUBLIC( "Name" )

creates the variable Name.

The scope of the created variable is global and there is no way to restrict the visibility of it.

When a variable is no more needed or desired, it can be released:

MEMRELEASE( "cVarName" )

The variable declaration do not defines the variable type. Every variable may receive any kind of data; that is that the type depends on the type of data contained.

724.9.3   Macro structure

A nB macro must be organised as follow. There may be two situations: Macros with procedures and macros without procedures.

Macro with procedures:

     PROCEDURE procedure_name_1
          statements...
          [RETURN]
          statements...
     ENDPROCEDURE
     PROCEDURE procedure_name_2
          statements...
          [RETURN]
          statements...
     ENDPROCEDURE
     ...
     ...
     DO PROCEDURE procedure_name_n

Macro without procedures:

    statements...
    statements...
    statements...
    statements...
    statements...

nB Macros may be compiled with Clipper. To do so, the first structure example must be changed as follows:

     #INCLUDE MACRO.CH

     DO PROCEDURE procedure_name_nth
     ...
     PROCEDURE procedure_name_1
          statements...
          [RETURN]
          statements...
     ENDPROCEDURE
     PROCEDURE procedure_name_2
          statements...
          [RETURN]
          statements...
     ENDPROCEDURE
     ...
     ...

To compile a macro with Clipper, the macro file name can be changed into MACRO.PRG and

     RTLINK MACRO.RMK [Enter]

should be started.

724.9.4   Macro comments

A nB Macro source file can contain comments. only the "//" comment is recognised! This way: * and /*...*/ will generate errors!

ATTENTION: to simplify the macro interpretation, lines such as this:

qqout( "You can't do that // you can't do that!" )

will generate an error as the interpreter will read only:

qqout( "You can't do that

Sorry!

724.9.5   Macro long lines split

Inside a nB macro, long lines may be splitted using ";" (semicolon). Please note that: lines can only be splitted and not joined; a resulting command line cannot be longer then 254 characters.

724.9.6   The macro recorder

Inside the functions ASSIST() and DOC() is available the Macro recorder menu.

When a macro recording is started, a "&" appears on the left side of the status bar. It it blinks, the recording is active, if it is stable, the recording is paused.

The macro recording is not exactly a step-by-step recording of all action taken, but a translation (as good as possible) of what you have done.

The macro recorder is able to record only the menu functions that terminates with the "&" symbol and all what is inserted at the dot command line.

The macro recording can be viewed and edited during the recording. The macro recording can be saved into a text file (a macro file).

724.10   Data types

The data types supported in the nB macro language are the same as Clipper:

Array

Character

Code Block

Numeric

Date

Logical

Memo

NIL

724.10.1   Character

The character data type identifies character strings of a fixed length. The character set corresponds to: CHR(32) through CHR(255) and the null character, CHR(0).

Valid character strings consist of zero or more characters with a theoretical maximum of 65 535 characters. The real maximum dimension depends on the available memory.

Character string constants are formed by enclosing a valid string of characters within a designed pair of delimiters. There are three possible delimiter pairs:

two single quotes like 'string_constant';

two double quotes like "string_constant";

left and right square brackets like [string_constant].

These three different kind of delimiters are available to resolve some possible problems:

I don't want it -> "I don't want it"

She said, "I love hin" -> 'She said, "I love hin"'

He said, "I don't want it" -> [He said, "I don't want it"]

The following table shows all operations available inside nB for character data types. These operations act on one or more character expressions and the result is not necessarily a character data type.

+ Concatenate.
- Concatenate without intervening spaces.
== Compare for exact equity.
!=, <>, # Compare for inequity.
< Compare for sorts before
<= Compare for sorts before or same as.
> Compare for sorts after.
>= Compare for sorts after or same as.
:= In line assign.
$ Test for substring existence.
ALLTRIM() Remove leading and trailing spaces.
ASC() Convert to numeric ASCII code equivalent.
AT() Locate substring position.
CTOD() Convert to date.
DESCEND() Convert to complemented form.
EMPTY() Test for null or blank string.
ISALPHA() Test for initial letter.
ISDIGIT() Test for initial digit.
ISLOWER() Test for initial lowercase letter.
ISUPPER() Test for initial uppercase letter.
LEFT() Extract substring form the left.
LEN() Compute string length in characters.
LOWER() Convert letters to lowercase.
LTRIM() Remove leading spaces.
PADC() Pad with leading and trailing spaces.
PADL() Pad with leading spaces.
PADR() Pad with trailing spaces.
RAT() Locate substring position starting from the right.
RIGHT() Extract substring form the right.
RTRIM() Remove trailing spaces.
SOUNDEX() Convert to soundex equivalent.
SPACE() Create a blank string of a defined length.
STRTRAN() Search and replace substring.
STUFF() Replace substring.
SUBSTR() Extract substring.
TRANSFORM() Convert to formatted string.
UPPER() Convert letters to uppercase
VAL() Convert to numeric.
VALTYPE() Evaluates data type directly.

724.10.2   Memo

The memo data type is used to represent variable length character data that can only exist in the form of a database field.

Memo fields are not stored inside the main database file (.DBF) but inside a separate file (.DBT).

A memo field can contain up to 65 535 characters, that is the same maximum dimension of character fields. In fact, originally xBases, couldn't have character string longer than 254 characters.

As here memo fields are very similar to long character strings, you may forget that there is a difference.

All the operations that may be applied to character strings, may be used with memo fields; the following functions may be use especially for memo fields or long character strings.

HARDCR() Replace soft with hard carriage returns.
MEMOEDIT() Edit contents.
MEMOLINE() Extract a line of a text.
MEMOREAD() Read form a disk text file.
MEMOTRAN() Replace soft and hard carriage returns.
MEMOWRIT() Write to disk text file.
MLCOUNT() Count lines.
MLPOS() Compute position.

724.10.3   Date

The date data type is used to represent calendar dates.

Supported dates are from 0100.01.01 to 2999.12.31 and null or blank date.

The appearance of a date is controlled from SETVERB("DATEFORMAT"). The default is "dd/mm/yyyy" and it may easily changed for example with SETVERB("DATEFORMAT", "MM/DD/YYYY") to the US standard.

There is no way to represent date constants; these must be replaced with the CTOD() function. For example if the date 11/11/1995 is to be written, the right way is:

CTOD( "11/11/1995" )

The character string "11/11/1995" must respect the date format defined as before explained.

The function CTOD() will accept only valid dates, and null dates:

CTOD( "" )

A null date is ever less than any other valid date.

The following table shows all operations available inside nB for date data types. These operations act on one or more date expressions and the result is not necessarily a character data type.

+ Add a number of days to a date.
- Subtract days to a date.
== Compare for equity.
!=, <>, # Compare for inequity.
< Compare for earlier
<= Compare for earlier or same as.
> Compare for later.
>= Compare for later or same as.
:= In line assign.
CDOW() Compute day of week name.
CMONTH() Compute month name.
DAY() Extract day number.
DESCEND() Convert to complemented form.
DOW() Compute day of week.
DTOC() Convert to character string with the format defined with SETVERB( "DATEFORMAT" ).
DOTOS() Convert to character string in sorting format (YYYYMMDD).
EMPTY() Test for null date.
MONTH() Extract month number.
VALTYPE() Evaluates data type directly.
YEAR() Extract entire year number, including century.

724.10.4   Numeric

The numeric data type identifies real number. The theoretical range is form 10^-308 to 10^308 but the numeric precision is guaranteed up to 16 significant digits, and formatting a numeric value for display is guaranteed up to a length of 32 (30 digits, a sign, and a decimal point). That is: numbers longer than 32 bytes may be displayed as asterisks, and digits other then most 16 significant ones are displayed as zeroes.

Numeric constants are written without delimiters. The following are valid constant numbers:

12345

12345.678

-156

+1256.789

-.789

If a numeric constant is delimited like character strings, it becomes a character string.

The following table shows all operations available inside nB for numeric data types. These operations act on one or more numeric expressions and the result is not necessarily a numeric data type.

+ Add or Unary Positive.
- Subtract or Unary Negative.
* Multiply.
/ Divide.
% Modulus.
^, ** Exponentiate.
== Compare for equity.
!=, <>, # Compare for inequity.
< Compare for less than.
>= Compare for less than or equal.
> Compare for greater than.
>= Compare for greater than or equal.
:= In line assign.
ABS() Compute absolute value.
CHR() Convert to ASCII character equivalent.
DESCEND() Convert to complemented form.
EMPTY() Test for zero.
EXP() Exponentiate with e as the base.
INT() Convert to integer.
LOG() Compute natural logarithm.
MAX() Compute maximum.
MIN() Compute minimum.
ROUND() Round up or down()
SQRT() Compute square root.
STR() Convert to character.
TRANSFORM() Convert to formatted string.
VALTYPE() Evaluates data type directly.

Number appearence may be affected by SETVERB("FIXED") and consequently by SETVERB("DECIMALS"). If SETVERB("FIXED") is True, numbers are displayed with a fixed decimal position. The number of decimal positions is defined by SETVERB("DECIMALS"). For that reason, the default is SETVERB("FIXED", .F.) and SETVERB("DECIMALS", 2), that is, no fixed decimal position, but if they will be activated, the default is two decimal digits.

724.10.5   Logical

The logical data type identifies Boolean values.

Logical constants are:

.T. True.
.F. False.

When editing a logical field, inputs may be:

y, Y, t, T for True
n, N, f, F for False

The following table shows all operations available inside nB for logical data types. These operations act on one or more logical expressions and the result is not necessarily a logical data type.

.AND. And.
.OR. Or.
.NOT. or ! Negate.
== Compare for equity.
!=, <>, or # Compare for inequity.

Comparing two logical values, False (.F.) is always less than True (.T.).

724.10.6   NIL

NIL is not properly a data type, it represent the value of an uninitialised variable.

Inside nB (like what it happens inside Clipper), variables are not declared with the data type that they will contain. This means that a variable can contain any kind of data. In fact, nB variables are pointer to data and a pointer to "nothing" is NIL.

NIL may be used as constant for assignment or comparing purpose:

NIL

Fields (database fields) cannot contain NIL.

The following table shows all operations available inside nB for the NIL data type. Except for these operations, attempting to operate on a NIL results in a runtime error.

== Compare for equity.
!=, <>, # Compare for inequity.
< Compare for less than.
<= Compare for less than or equal.
> Compare for greater than.
>= Compare for greater than or equal.
:= In line assign.
EMPTY() Test for NIL.
VALTYPE() Evaluates data type directly.

For the purpose of comparison, NIL is the only value that is equal to NIL. All other values are greater than NIL.

Variables are created inside nB with MEMPUBLIC(). This function creates variables which will be automatically initialised to NIL.

724.10.7   Array

The array data type identifies a collection of related data items that share the same name. Each value in an array is referred to as an element.

Array elements can be of any data type except memo (memo is available only inside database fields). For example the first element can be a character string, the second a number, the third a date and so on. Arrays can contain other arrays and code blocks as elements.

The variable containing the array does not contains the entire array, but the reference to it.

When the NIL type was described, it was cleared that variables doesn't contains real data, but pointer to data. But this happens in a transparent way, that is that when the a variable is assigned to another (for example A := B) the variable receiving the assignment will receive a pointer to a new copy of the source data. This is not the same with arrays: assigning to a variable an array, will assign to that variable a pointer to the same source array and not to a new copy of it.

If arrays are to be duplicated, the ACLONE() function is to be used.

An array constant may be expressed using curly brackets {}. See the examples below.

A := { "first_element", "second_element", "third_element" }

With this example, the variable A contain the reference to an array with three element containing character string.

A[1] == "first_element"

A[2] == "second_element"

A[3] == "third_element"

Arrays may contain also no element: empty array and may be expressed as:

{}

The array element is identified by a number enclosed with square brackets, following the variable name containing the reference to the array. The first array element is one.

If an array contains arrays, we obtain a multidimensional array. For example:

A := { { 1, 2 }, { 3, 4 }, { 5, 6 } }

is equivalent to the following table.

1         2

3         4

5         6

With this example, the variable A contain the reference to a bidimensional array containing numbers.

A[1,1] or A[1][1] contains 1

A[1,2] or A[1][2] contains 2

A[2,1] or A[2][1] contains 3

and so on.

As arrays may contain mixed data, it is the user who have to handle correctly the element numbers. For example:

A := { "hello", { 3, 4 }, 1234 }

A[1] == "hello"

A[2] == reference to { 3, 4 }

A[3] == 1234

A[2,1] or A[2][1] contains 3

A[2,2] or A[2][2] contains 4

A[1,1] is an error!

The following table shows all operations available inside nB for arrays.

:= In line assign.
AADD() Add dynamically an element to an array.
ACLONE() Create a copy of an array.
ACOPY() Copy element by element an array to another.
ADEL() Delete one element inside an array.
AFILL() Fill all array elements with a value.
AINS() Insert an element inside an array.
ARRAY() Creates an array of empty elements.
ASCAN() Scan the array elements.
ASIZE() Resize an array.
ASORT() Sort the array elements.
EMPTY() Test for no elements.
VALTYPE() Evaluates data type directly.

724.10.8   Code block

The code block data type identifies a small piece of executable program code.

A code block is something like a little user defined function where only a sequence of functions or assignments may appear: no loops, no IF ELSE END.

A code block may receive argument and return a value after execution, just like a function.

The syntax is:

{ | [argument_list] | exp_list }

That is: the argument_list is optional; the exp_list may contain one or more expressions separated with a comma.

For example, calling the following code block will give the string "hello world" as result.

{ || "hello world" }

The following code block require a numeric argument an returns the number passed as argument incremented:

{ | n | n+1 }

The following code block requires two numeric arguments and returns the sum of the two square radix:

{ | nFirst, nSecond | SQRT(nFirst) + SQRT(nSecond) }

But code blocks may contains more expressions and the result of the execution of the code block is the result of the last expression.

The following code block executes in sequence some functions and give ever "hello world" as a result.

{ | a, b | functionOne(a), functionTwo(b), "hello world" }

To start the execution of a code block a function is used: EVAL()

For example, a code block is assigned to a variable and then executed.

B := { || "hello world" }

EVAL( B ) == "hello world"

Another example with a parameter.

B := { | n | n+1 }

EVAL( B, 1 ) == 2

Another example with two parameters.

B := { | nFirst, nSecond | SQRT(nFirst) + SQRT(nSecond) }

EVAL( B, 2, 4 ) == 20

And so on.

The following table shows some operations available inside nB for code blocks: many functions use code blocks as argument.

:= In line assign.
AEVAL() Evaluate (execute) a code block for each element in an array.
BCOMPILE() Convert (compile) a character string into a code block.
DBEVAL() Evaluate (execute) a code block for each record in the active alias.
EVAL() Evaluate a code block once.
VALTYPE() Evaluates data type directly.

724.11   Operators

Here is a list with a brief description of the operators available inside nB.

cString1 $ cString2

Substring comparison.

If cString1 is contained inside cString2 the result is true (.T.).

nNumber1 % nNumber2

Modulus.

The result is the remainder of nNumber1 divided by nNuber2.

()

Function or grouping indicator.

nNumber1 * nNumber2

Multiplication.

nNumber1 ** nNumber2
nNumber1 ^ nNumber2

Exponentiation.

nNumber1 + nNumber2
dDate + nNumber

Addition, unary positive.

cString1 + cString2

String concatenation.

The result is a string beginning with the content of cString1 and following with the content of cString2.

nNumber1 - nNumber2
dDate1 - dDate2
dDate - nNumber

Subtraction, unary negative.

cString1 - cString2

String concatenation.

The result is a string containing cString1 after trimming trailing blanks and cString2.

idAlias->idField
FIELD->idVar
MEMVAR->idVar

Alias assignment.

The alias operator implicitly SELECTs the idAlias before evaluating idField. When the evaluation is complete, the original work area is SELECTed again.

lCondition1 .AND. lCondition2

Logical AND.

.NOT. lCondition

Logical NOT.

lCondition1 .OR. lCondition2

Logical OR.

nNumber1 / nNumber2

Division.

object:message[(argument list)]

Send.

idVar := exp

Inline assign.

exp1 <= exp2

Less than or equal.

exp1 <> exp2

Not equal.

exp1 = exp2

Equal.

exp1 == exp2

Exactly equal.

exp1 > exp2

Greater than.

exp1 >= exp2

Greater than or equal.

@idVar

Pass-by-reference.

[]
aArray[nSubscript, ...]
aArray[nSubscript1][nSubscript2] ...

Array element indicator.

724.12   Delimiters

Here is the delimiter list recognised from nB.

{ exp_list }

Literal array delimiters.

{ |param_list| exp_list }

Code block delimiters.

"cString"
'cString'
[cString]

String delimiters.

724.13   Code blocks

A code block is a sequence of function, assignments and constant like the following:

     sqrt(10)
     nResult := 10 * nIndex

Suppose that the above sequence of operations has a meaning for you. We want to create a box containing this sequence of operation. This box is contained inside a variable:

     bBlackBox := { || sqrt(10), nResult := 10 * nIndex }

Note the comma used as separator.

Now bBlackBox contains the small sequence seen before. To execute this sequence, the function EVAL() is used:

     EVAL(bBlackBox)

The execution of the code block gives a result: the value of the last operation contained inside the code block. In this case it is the result of 10*nIndex. For that reason, if the execution of the code block must give a fixed result, it can terminate with a constant.

A code block may receive parameters working like a function. Try to imagine that we need to do the following.

     function multiply( nVar1, nVar2 )
          return nVar * nVar2
     endfunction

A code block that does the same is:

     bMultiply := { | nVar1, nVar2 | nVar1 * nVar2 }

To evaluate it, for example trying to multiply 10 * 5:

     nResult := EVAL( bMultiply, 10, 5 )

and nResult will contain 50.

724.14   Standard functions

With nB all Clipper standard functions may be used. Here follows a short description.

724.14.1   AADD()

Array add

AADD(aTarget, expValue) => Value
aTarget is the array to add a new element to.
expValue is the value assigned to the new element.

It increases the actual length of the target array by one. The newly created array element is assigned the value specified by expValue.

724.14.2   ABS()

Absolute

ABS(nExp) => nPositive
nExp is the numeric expression to evaluate.

ABS() returns a number representing the absolute value of its argument.

724.14.3   ACLONE()

Array clone

ACLONE(aSource) => aDuplicate
aSource is the array to duplicate.

ACLONE() returns a duplicate of aSource.

724.14.4   ACOPY()

Array copy

ACOPY(aSource, aTarget,
     [nStart], [nCount], [nTargetPos]) => aTarget
aSource is the array to copy elements from.
aTarget is the array to copy elements to.
nStart is the starting element position in the aSource array. If not specified, the default value is one.
nCount is the number of elements to copy from the aSource array beginning at the nStart position. If nCount is not specified, all elements in aSource beginning with the starting element are copied.
nTargetPos is the starting element position in the aTarget array to receive elements from aSource. If not specified, the default value is one.

ACOPY() is an array function that copies elements from the aSource array to the aTarget array. The aTarget array must already exist and be large enough to hold the copied elements.

724.14.5   ADEL()

Array delete

ADEL(aTarget, nPosition) => aTarget
aTarget is the array to delete an element from.
nPosition is the position of the target array element to delete.

ADEL() is an array function that deletes an element from an array. The contents of the specified array element is lost, and all elements from that position to the end of the array are shifted up one element. The last element in the array becomes NIL.

724.14.6   AEVAL()

Array evaluation

AEVAL(aArray, bBlock,
     [nStart], [nCount]) => aArray
aArray is the array to be evaluated.
bBlock is a code block to execute for each element encountered.
nStart is the starting element. If not specified, the default is element one.
nCount is the number of elements to process from nStart. If not specified, the default is all elements to the end of the array.

AEVAL() is an array function that evaluates a code block once for each element of an array, passing the element value and the element index as block parameters. The return value of the block is ignored. All elements in aArray are processed unless either the nStart or the nCount argument is specified.

724.14.7   AFILL()

Array fill

AFILL(aTarget, expValue,
     [nStart], [nCount]) => aTarget
aTarget is the array to fill.
expValue is the value to place in each array element. It can be an expression of any valid data type.
nStart is the position of the first element to fill. If this argument is omitted, the default value is one.
nCount is the number of elements to fill starting with element nStart. If this argument is omitted, elements are filled from the starting element position to the end of the array.

AFILL() is an array function that fills the specified array with a single value of any data type (including an array, code block, or NIL) by assigning expValue to each array element in the specified range.

724.14.8   AINS()

Array insert

AINS(aTarget, nPosition) => aTarget
aTarget is the array into which a new element will be inserted.
nPosition is the position at which the new element will be inserted.

AINS() is an array function that inserts a new element into a specified array. The newly inserted element is NIL data type until a new value is assigned to it. After the insertion, the last element in the array is discarded, and all elements after the new element are shifted down one position.

724.14.9   ALERT()

ALERT( cMessage, [aOptions] ) => nChoice
cMessage is the message text displayed, centered, in the alert box. If the message contains one or more semicolons, the text after the semicolons is centered on succeeding lines in the dialog box.
aOptions defines a list of up to 4 possible responses to the dialog box.

ALERT() returns a numeric value indicating which option was chosen. If the Esc key is pressed, the value returned is zero. The ALERT() function creates a simple modal dialog. The user can respond by moving a highlight bar and pressing the Return or SpaceBar keys, or by pressing the key corresponding to the first letter of the option. If aOptions is not supplied, a single "Ok" option is presented.

724.14.10   ALIAS()

ALIAS([nWorkArea]) => cAlias
nWorkArea is any work area number.

ALIAS() returns the alias of the specified work area as a character string. If nWorkArea is not specified, the alias of the current work area is returned. If there is no database file in USE for the specified work area, ALIAS() returns a null string ("").

724.14.11   ALLTRIM()

ALLTRIM(cString) => cTrimmedString
cString is the character expression to trim.

ALLTRIM() returns a character string with leading and trailing spaces removed.

724.14.12   ARRAY()

ARRAY(nElements [, nElements...]) => aArray
nElements is the number of elements in the specified dimension.

ARRAY() is an array function that returns an uninitialized array with the specified number of elements and dimensions.

724.14.13   ASC()

ASCII

ASC(cExp) => nCode
cExp is the character expression to convert to a number.

ASC() returns an integer numeric value in the range of zero to 255 , representing the ASCII value of cExp.

724.14.14   ASCAN()

Array scan

ASCAN(aTarget, expSearch,
     [nStart], [nCount]) => nStoppedAt
aTarget is the array to scan.
expSearch is either a simple value to scan for, or a code block. If expSearch is a simple value it can be character, date, logical, or numeric type.
nStart is the starting element of the scan. If this argument is not specified, the default starting position is one.
nCount is the number of elements to scan from the starting position. If this argument is not specified, all elements from the starting element to the end of the array are scanned.

ASCAN() returns a numeric value representing the array position of the last element scanned. If expSearch is a simple value, ASCAN() returns the position of the first matching element, or zero if a match is not found. If expSearch is a code block, ASCAN() returns the position of the element where the block returned true (.T.).

724.14.15   ASIZE()

Array size

ASIZE(aTarget, nLength) => aTarget
aTarget is the array to grow or shrink.
nLength is the new size of the array.

ASIZE() is an array function that changes the actual length of the aTarget array. The array is shortened or lengthened to match the specified length. If the array is shortened, elements at the end of the array are lost. If the array is lengthened, new elements are added to the end of the array and assigned NIL.

724.14.16   ASORT()

Array sort

ASORT(aTarget, [nStart],
     [nCount], [bOrder]) => aTarget
aTarget is the array to sort.
nStart is the first element of the sort. If not specified, the default starting position is one.
nCount is the number of elements to sort. If not specified, all elements in the array beginning with the starting element are sorted.
bOrder is an optional code block used to determine sorting order. If not specified, the default order is ascending.

ASORT() is an array function that sorts all or part of an array containing elements of a single data type. Data types that can be sorted include character, date, logical, and numeric. If the bOrder argument is not specified, the default order is ascending. Each time the block is evaluated, two elements from the target array are passed as block parameters. The block must return true (.T.) if the elements are in sorted order.

724.14.17   AT()

AT(cSearch, cTarget) => nPosition
cSearch is the character substring for which to search.
cTarget is the character string to search.

AT() returns the position of the first instance of cSearch within cTarget as an integer numeric value. If cSearch is not found, AT() returns zero.

AT() is a character function used to determine the position of the first occurrence of a character substring within another string.

724.14.18   ATAIL()

Array TAIL

ATAIL(aArray) => Element
aArray is the array.

ATAIL() is an array function that returns the highest numbered element of an array. It can be used in applications as shorthand for aArray[LEN(aArray)] when you need to obtain the last element of an array.

724.14.19   BIN2I()

Binary to integer

BIN2I(cSignedInt) => nNumber
cSignedInt is a character string in the form of a 16-bit signed integer number--least significant byte first.

BIN2I() returns an integer obtained converting the first two byte contained inside cSignedInt.

724.14.20   BIN2L()

Binary to long

BIN2L(cSignedInt) => nNumber
cSignedInt is a character string in the form of a 32-bit signed integer number--least significant byte first.

BIN2L() returns an integer obtained from the first tour characters contained in cSignedInt.

724.14.21   BIN2W()

Binary to word

BIN2W(cUnsignedInt) => nNumber
cUnsignedInt is a character string in the form of a 16-bit unsigned integer number--least significant byte first.

BIN2W() returns an integer obtained from the first two characters contained in cSignedInt.

724.14.22   BOF()

Begin of file

BOF() => lBoundary

BOF() returns true (.T.) after an attempt to SKIP backward beyond the first logical record in a database file; otherwise, it returns false (.F.). If there is no database file open in the current work area, BOF() returns false (.F.). If the current database file contains no records, BOF() returns true (.T.).

724.14.23   CDOW()

Character day of week

CDOW(dExp) => cDayName
dExp is the date value to convert.

CDOW() returns the name of the day of the week as a character string. The first letter is uppercase and the rest of the string is lowercase. For a null date value, CDOW() returns a null string ("").

724.14.24   CHR()

Character

CHR(nCode) => cChar
nCode is an ASCII code in the range of zero to 255.

CHR() returns a single character value whose ASCII code is specified by nCode.

724.14.25   CMONTH()

Character month

CMONTH(dDate) => cMonth
dDate is the date value to convert.

CMONTH() returns the name of the month as a character string from a date value with the first letter uppercase and the rest of the string lowercase. For a null date value, CMONTH() returns a null string ("").

724.14.26   COL()

Column

COL() => nCol

COL() is a screen function that returns the current column position of the cursor. The value of COL() changes whenever the cursor position changes on the screen.

724.14.27   COLORSELECT()

COLORSELECT(nColorIndex) => NIL
nColorIndex is a number corresponding to the ordinal positions in the current list of color attributes, as set by SETCOLOR().

COLORSELECT() activates the specified color pair from the current list of color attributes (established by SETCOLOR()).

724.14.28   CTOD()

Character to date

CTOD(cDate) => dDate
cDate is a character string consisting of numbers representing the month, day, and year separated by any character other than a number. The month, day, and year digits must be specified in accordance with the SET DATE format. If the century digits are not specified, the century is determined by the rules of SET EPOCH.

CTOD() returns a date value. If cDate is not a valid date, CTOD() returns an empty date.

724.14.29   CURDIR()

Current directory

CURDIR([cDrivespec]) => cDirectory
cDrivespec specifies the letter of the disk drive to query. If not specified, the default is the current DOS drive.

CURDIR() returns the current DOS directory of the drive specified by cDrivespec as a character string without either leading or trailing backslash (\) characters.

724.14.30   DATE()

DATE() => dSystemDate

DATE() returns the system date as a date value.

724.14.31   DAY()

DAY(dDate) => nDay
dDate is a date value to convert.

DAY() returns the day number from dDate.

724.14.32   DBAPPEND()

DBAPPEND([lReleaseRecLocks]) => NIL
lReleaseRecLocks is a logical data type that if true (.T.), clears all pending record locks, then appends the next record. If lReleaseRecLocks is false (.F.), all pending record locks are maintained and the new record is added to the end of the Lock List. The default value of lReleaseRecLocks is true (.T.).

DBAPPEND() adds a new empty record to the active alias.

724.14.33   DBCLEARFILTER()

DBCLEARFILTER() => NIL

DBCLEARFILTER() clears the logical filter condition, if any, for the current work area.

724.14.34   DBCLEARINDEX()

DBCLEARINDEX() => NIL

DBCLEARINDEX() closes any active indexes for the active alias.

724.14.35   DBCLEARRELATION()

DBCLEARRELATION() => NIL

DBCLEARRELATION() clears any active relations for the active alias.

724.14.36   DBCLOSEALL()

DBCLOSEALL() => NIL

DBCLOSEALL() releases all occupied work areas from use. It is equivalent to calling DBCLOSEAREA() on every occupied work area.

Attention: DBCLOSEALL() cannot be used inside a "compiled" macro as this will stop the macro execution. In substitution, DBCLOSE() should be used.

724.14.37   DBCLOSEAREA()

DBCLOSEAREA() => NIL

DBCLOSEAREA() releases the current work area from use.

724.14.38   DBCOMMIT()

DBCOMMIT() => NIL

DBCOMMIT() causes all updates to the current work area to be written to disk. All updated database and index buffers are written to DOS and a DOS COMMIT request is issued for the database (.dbf) file and any index files associated with the work area. Inside a network environment, DBCOMMIT() makes database updates visible to other processes. To insure data integrity, issue DBCOMMIT() before an UNLOCK operation.

724.14.39   DBCOMMITALL()

DBCOMMITALL() => NIL

DBCOMMITALL() causes all pending updates to all work areas to be written to disk. It is equivalent to calling DBCOMMIT() for every occupied work area.

724.14.40   DBCREATE()

DBCREATE(cDatabase, aStruct, [cDriver]) => NIL
cDatabase is the name of the new database file, with an optional drive and directory, specified as a character string. If specified without an extension (.dbf) is assumed.
aStruct is an array that contains the structure of cDatabase as a series of subarrays, one per field. Each subarray contains the definition of each field's attributes and has the following structure:
aStruct[n][1] == cName
aStruct[n][2] == cType
aStruct[n][3] == nLength
aStruct[n][4] == nDecimals
cDriver specifies the replaceable database driver (RDD) to use to process the current work area. cDriver is name of the RDD specified as a character expression.

DBCREATE() is a database function that creates a database file from an array containing the structure of the file.

724.14.41   DBCREATEINDEX()

DBCREATEINDEX(cIndexName, cKeyExpr, bKeyExpr, [lUnique])
     => NIL
cIndexName is a character value that specifies the filename of the index file (order bag) to be created.
cKeyExpr is a character value that expresses the index key expression in textual form.
bKeyExpr is a code block that expresses the index key expression in executable form.
lUnique is an optional logical value that specifies whether a unique index is to be created. If lUnique is omitted, the current global _SET_UNIQUE setting is used.

DBCREATEINDEX() creates an index for the active alias. If the alias has active indexes, they are closed.

724.14.42   DBDELETE()

DBDELETE() => NIL

DBDELETE() marks the current record as deleted (*). Records marked for deletion can be filtered using SET DELETED or removed from the file using the PACK command.

724.14.43   DBEVAL()

DB evaluate

DBEVAL(bBlock,
     [bForCondition],
     [bWhileCondition],
     [nNextRecords],
     [nRecord],
     [lRest]) => NIL
bBlock is a code block to execute for each record processed.
bForCondition the FOR condition expressed as code block.
bWhileCondition the WHILE condition expressed as code block.
nNextRecords is an optional number that specifies the number of records to process starting with the current record. It is the same as the NEXT clause.
nRecord is an optional record number to process. If this argument is specified, bBlock will be evaluated for the specified record. This argument is the same as the RECORD clause.
lRest is an optional logical value that determines whether the scope of DBEVAL() is all records, or, starting with the current record, all records to the end of file.

DBEVAL() is a database function that evaluates a single block for each record within the active alias.

724.14.44   DBFILTER()

DBFILTER() => cFilter

BFILTER() returns the filter condition defined in the current work area as a character string. If no FILTER has been SET, DBFILTER() returns a null string ("").

724.14.45   DBGOBOTTOM()

DBGOBOTTOM() => NIL

DBGOBOTTOM() moves to last logical record in the active alias.

724.14.46   DBGOTO()

DBGOTO(nRecordNumber) => NIL
nRecordNumber is a numeric value that specifies the record number of the desired record.

DBGOTO() moves to the record whose record number is equal to nRecordNumber. If no such record exists, the work area is positioned to LASTREC() + 1 and both EOF() and BOF() return true (.T.).

724.14.47   DBGOTOP()

DBGOTOP() => NIL

DBGOTOP() moves to the first logical record in the current work area.

724.14.48   DBRECALL()

DBRECALL() => NIL

DBRECALL() causes the current record to be reinstated if it is marked for deletion.

724.14.49   DBREINDEX()

DBREINDEX() => NIL

DBREINDEX() rebuilds all active indexes associated with the active alias.

724.14.50   DBRELATION()

DBRELATION(nRelation) => cLinkExp
nRelation is the position of the desired relation in the list of active alias relations.

DBRELATION() returns a character string containing the linking expression of the relation specified by nRelation. If there is no RELATION SET for nRelation, DBRELATION() returns a null string ("").

724.14.51   DBRLOCK()

DB record lock

DBRLOCK([nRecNo]) => lSuccess
nRecNo is the record number to be locked. The default is the current record.

DBRLOCK() is a database function that locks the record identified by nRecNo or the current record.

724.14.52   DBRLOCKLIST()

DBRLOCKLIST() => aRecordLocks

DBRLOCKLIST() returns a one-dimensional array of the locked records in the active alias.

724.14.53   DBRSELECT()

DB relation select

DBRSELECT(nRelation) => nWorkArea
nRelation is the position of the desired relation in the list of current work area relations.

DBRSELECT() returns the work area number of the relation specified by nRelation as an integer numeric value. If there is no RELATION SET for nRelation, DBRSELECT() returns zero.

724.14.54   DBRUNLOCK()

DB relation unlock

DBRUNLOCK([nRecNo]) => NIL
nRecNo is the record number to be unlocked. The default is all previously locked records.

DBRUNLOCK() is a database function that unlocks the record identified by nRecNo or all locked records.

724.14.55   DBSEEK()

DBSEEK(expKey, [lSoftSeek]) => lFound
expKey is a value of any type that specifies the key value associated with the desired record.
lSoftSeek is an optional logical value that specifies whether a soft seek is to be performed. This determines how the work area is positioned if the specified key value is not found. If lSoftSeek is omitted, the current global _SET_SOFTSEEK setting is used.

DBSEEK() returns true (.T.) if the specified key value was found; otherwise, it returns false (.F.).

724.14.56   DBSELECTAREA()

DBSELECTAREA(nArea | cAlias) => NIL
nArea is a numeric value between zero and 250, inclusive, that specifies the work area being selected.
cAlias is a character value that specifies the alias of a currently occupied work area being selected.

DBSELECTAREA() causes the specified work area to become the current work area. All subsequent database operations will apply to this work area unless another work area is explicitly specified for an operation.

724.14.57   DBSETDRIVER()

DBSETDRIVER([cDriver]) => cCurrentDriver
cDriver is an optional character value that specifies the name of the database driver that should be used to activate and manage new work areas when no driver is explicitly specified.

DBSETDRIVER() returns the name of the current default driver.

724.14.58   DBSETFILTER()

DBSETFILTER(bCondition, [cCondition]) => NIL
bCondition is a code block that expresses the filter condition in executable form.
cCondition is a character value that expresses the filter condition in textual form. If cCondition is omitted, the DBSETFILTER() function will return an empty string for the work area.

DBSETFILTER() sets a logical filter condition for the current work area. When a filter is set, records which do not meet the filter condition are not logically visible. That is, database operations which act on logical records will not consider these records. The filter expression supplied to DBSETFILTER() evaluates to true (.T.) if the current record meets the filter condition; otherwise, it should evaluate to false (.F.).

724.14.59   DBSETINDEX()

DBSETINDEX(cOrderBagName) => NIL
cOrderBagName is a character value that specifies the filename of the index file (index bag) to be opened.

DBSETINDEX() is a database function that adds the contents of an Order Bag into the Order List of the current work area. Any Orders already associated with the work area continue to be active. If the newly opened Order Bag is the only Order associated with the work area, it becomes the controlling Order; otherwise, the controlling Order remains unchanged. If the Order Bag contains more than one Order, and there are no other Orders associated with the work area, the first Order in the new Order Bag becomes the controlling Order.

724.14.60   DBSETORDER()

DBSETORDER(nOrderNum) => NIL
nOrderNum is a numeric value that specifies which of the active indexes is to be the controlling index.

DBSETORDER() controls which of the active alias' active indexes is the controlling index.

724.14.61   DBSETRELATION()

DBSETRELATION(nArea | cAlias, bExpr, [cExpr]) => NIL
nArea is a numeric value that specifies the work area number of the child work area.
cAlias is a character value that specifies the alias of the child work area.
bExpr is a code block that expresses the relational expression in executable form.
cExpr is an optional character value that expresses the relational expression in textual form. If cExpr is omitted, the DBRELATION() function returns an empty string for the relation.

DBSETRELATION() relates the work area specified by nArea or cAlias (the child work area), to the current work area (the parent work area). Any existing relations remain active.

724.14.62   DBSKIP()

DBSKIP([nRecords]) => NIL
nRecords is the number of logical records to move, relative to the current record. A positive value means to skip forward, and a negative value means to skip backward. If nRecords is omitted, a value of 1 is assumed.

DBSKIP() moves either forward or backward relative to the current record. Attempting to skip forward beyond the last record positions the work area to LASTREC() + 1 and EOF() returns true (.T.). Attempting to skip backward beyond the first record positions the work area to the first record and BOF() returns true (.T.).

724.14.63   DBSTRUCT()

DBSTRUCT() => aStruct

DBSTRUCT() returns the structure of the current database file in an array whose length is equal to the number of fields in the database file. Each element of the array is a subarray containing information for one field. The subarrays have the following format:

aStruct[n][1] == cName
aStruct[n][2] == cType
aStruct[n][3] == nLength
aStruct[n][4] == nDecimals

If there is no database file in USE in the current work area, DBSTRUCT() returns an empty array ({}).

724.14.64   DBUNLOCK()

DBUNLOCK() => NIL

DBUNLOCK() releases any record or file locks obtained by the current process for the current work area. DBUNLOCK() is only meaningful on a shared database in a network environment.

724.14.65   DBUNLOCKALL()

DBUNLOCKALL() => NIL

DBUNLOCKALL() releases any record or file locks obtained by the current process for any work area. DBUNLOCKALL() is only meaningful on a shared database in a network environment.

724.14.66   DBUSEAREA()

DBUSEAREA( [lNewArea], [cDriver], cName, [xcAlias],
     [lShared], [lReadonly]) => NIL
lNewArea is an optional logical value. A value of true (.T.) selects the lowest numbered unoccupied work area as the current work area before the use operation. If lNewArea is false (.F.) or omitted, the current work area is used; if the work area is occupied, it is closed first.
cDriver is an optional character value. If present, it specifies the name of the database driver which will service the work area. If cDriver is omitted, the current default driver is used.
cName specifies the name of the database (.dbf) file to be opened.
xcAlias is an optional character value. If present, it specifies the alias to be associated with the work area. The alias must constitute a valid identifier. A valid xcAlias may be any legal identifier (i.e., it must begin with an alphabetic character and may contain numeric or alphabetic characters and the underscore). If xcAlias is omitted, a default alias is constructed from cName.
lShared is an optional logical value. If present, it specifies whether the database (.dbf) file should be accessible to other processes on a network. A value of true (.T.) specifies that other processes should be allowed access; a value of false (.F.) specifies that the current process is to have exclusive access. If lShared is omitted, the current global _SET_EXCLUSIVE setting determines whether shared access is allowed.
lReadonly is an optional logical value that specifies whether updates to the work area are prohibited. A value of true (.T.) prohibits updates; a value of false (.F.) permits updates. A value of true (.T.) also permits read-only access to the specified database (.dbf) file. If lReadonly is omitted, the default value is false (.F.).

DBUSEAREA() opens the specified database (.DBF).

724.14.67   DBDELETE()

DELETED() => lDeleted

DELETED() returns true (.T.) if the current record is marked for deletion; otherwise, it returns false (.F.). If there is no database file in USE in the current work area, DELETED() returns false (.F.).

724.14.68   DESCEND()

DESCEND(exp) => ValueInverted
exp is any valid expression of character, date, logical, or numeric type.

DESCEND() returns an inverted expression of the same data type as the exp, except for dates which return a numeric value. A DESCEND() of CHR(0) always returns CHR(0).

724.14.69   DEVOUT()

Device output

DEVOUT(exp, [cColorString]) => NIL
exp is the value to display.
cColorString is an optional argument that defines the display color of exp.

DEVOUT() is a full-screen display function that writes the value of a single expression to the current device at the current cursor or printhead position.

724.14.70   DEVOUTPICT()

Device output picture

DEVOUTPICT(exp, cPicture, [cColorString]) => NIL
exp is the value to display.
cPicture defines the formatting control for the display of exp.
cColorString is an optional argument that defines the display color of exp.

DEVOUTPICT() is a full-screen display function that writes the value of a single expression to the current device at the current cursor or printhead position.

724.14.71   DEVPOS()

Device position

DEVPOS(nRow, nCol) => NIL
nRow, nCol are the new row and column positions of the cursor or printhead.

DEVPOS() is an environment function that moves the screen or printhead depending on the current DEVICE.

724.14.72   DIRECTORY()

DIRECTORY(cDirSpec, [cAttributes]) => aDirectory
cDirSpec identifies the drive, directory and file specification for the directory search. Wildcards are allowed in the file specification. If cDirSpec is omitted, the default value is *.*.
cAttributes specifies inclusion of files with special attributes in the returned information. cAttributes is a string containing one or more of the following characters:
H Include hidden files
S Include system files
D Include directories
V Search for the DOS volume label only
Normal files are always included in the search, unless you specify V.

DIRECTORY() returns an array of subarrays, with each subarray containing information about each file matching cDirSpec. The subarray has the following structure:

aDirectory[n][1] == cName
aDirectory[n][2] == cSize
aDirectory[n][3] == dDate
aDirectory[n][4] == cTime
aDirectory[n][5] == cAttributes

If no files are found matching cDirSpec or if cDirSpec is an illegal path or file specification, DIRECTORY() returns an empty ({}) array.

724.14.73   DISKSPACE()

DISKSPACE([nDrive]) => nBytes
nDrive is the number of the drive to query, where one is drive A, two is B, three is C, etc. The default is the current DOS drive if nDrive is omitted or specified as zero.

DISKSPACE() returns the number of bytes of empty space on the specified disk drive as an integer numeric value.

724.14.74   DISPBOX()

Display box

DISPBOX(nTop, nLeft, nBottom, nRight,
     [cnBoxString], [cColorString]) => NIL
nTop, nLeft, nBottom, nRight define the coordinates of the box.
cnBoxString is a numeric or character expression that defines the border characters of the box. If specified as a numeric expression, a value of 1 displays a single-line box and a value of 2 displays a double-line box. All other numeric values display a single-line box. If cnBoxString is a character expression, it specifies the characters to be used in drawing the box. This is a string of eight border characters and a fill character.
cColorString defines the display color of the box that is drawn.

DISPBOX() is a screen function that draws a box at the specified display coordinates in the specified color.

724.14.75   DISPOUT()

Display out

DISPOUT(exp, [cColorString]) => NIL
exp is the value to display.
cColorString is an optional argument that defines the display color of exp.
cColorString is a character expression containing the standard color setting.

DISPOUT() is a simple output function that writes the value of a single expression to the display at the current cursor position. This function ignores the SET DEVICE setting; output always goes to the screen.

724.14.76   DOW()

Day of week

DOW(dDate) => nDay
dDate is a date value to convert.

DOW() returns the day of the week as a number between zero and seven. The first day of the week is one (Sunday) and the last day is seven (Saturday). If dDate is empty, DOW() returns zero.

724.14.77   DTOC()

Date to character

DTOC(dDate) => cDate
dDate is the date value to convert.

DTOC() returns a character string representation of a date value. The return value is formatted in the current date format. A null date returns a string of spaces equal in length to the current date format.

724.14.78   DTOS()

Date to sort

DTOS(dDate) => cDate
dDate is the date value to convert.

DTOS() returns a character string eight characters long in the form, yyyymmdd. When dDate is a null date (CTOD("")), DTOS() returns a string of eight spaces.

724.14.79   EMPTY()

EMPTY(exp) => lEmpty
exp is an expression of any data type.

EMPTY() returns true (.T.) if the expression results in an empty value; otherwise, it returns false (.F.):

Array {}
Character/Memo Spaces, tabs, CR/LF, or ""
Numeric 0
Date CTOD("")
Logical .F.
NIL NIL

724.14.80   EOF()

End of file

EOF() => lBoundary

EOF() returns true (.T.) when an attempt is made to move the record pointer beyond the last logical record in a database file; otherwise, it returns false (.F.). If there is no database file open in the current work area, EOF() returns false (.F.). If the current database file contains no records, EOF() returns true (.T.).

724.14.81   EVAL()

Code block evaluation

EVAL(bBlock, [BlockArg_list]) => LastBlockValue
bBlock is the code block to evaluate.
BlockArg_list is a list of arguments to send to the code block before it is evaluated.

To execute or evaluate a code block, call EVAL() with the block value and any parameters. The parameters are supplied to the block when it is executed. Code blocks may be a series of expressions separated by commas. When a code block is evaluated, the returned value is the value of the last expression in the block.

724.14.82   EXP()

Exponent

EXP(nExponent) => nAntilogarithm
nExponent is the natural logarithm for which a numeric value is to be calculated.

EXP() returns a numeric value that is equivalent to the value e raised to the specified power.

724.14.83   FCLOSE()

File close

FCLOSE(nHandle) => lError
nHandle is the file handle obtained previously from FOPEN() or FCREATE().

FCLOSE() is a low-level file function that closes binary files and forces the associated DOS buffers to be written to disk. If the operation fails, FCLOSE() returns false (.F.). FERROR() can then be used to determine the reason for the failure.

724.14.84   FCOUNT()

Field count

FCOUNT() => nFields

FCOUNT() returns the number of fields in the database file in the active alias as an integer numeric value. If there is no database file open, FCOUNT() returns zero.

724.14.85   FCREATE()

Field create

FCREATE(cFile, [nAttribute]) => nHandle
cFile is the name of the file to create. If the file already exists, its length is truncated to zero without warning.
nAttribute is the binary file attribute, the default value is zero.
nAttribute = 0 Normal (default)
nAttribute = 1 Read-only
nAttribute = 2 Hidden
nAttribute = 4 System

FCREATE() returns the DOS file handle number of the new binary file in the range of zero to 65,535. If an error occurs, FCREATE() returns -1 and FERROR() is set to indicate an error code.

724.14.86   FERASE()

File erase

FERASE(cFile) => nSuccess
cFile is the name (with or without path) of the file to be deleted from disk.

FERASE() is a file function that deletes a specified file from disk. FERASE() returns -1 if the operation fails and zero if it succeeds.

724.14.87   FERROR()

File error

FERROR() => nErrorCode

FERROR() returns the DOS error from the last file operation as an integer numeric value. If there is no error, FERROR() returns zero.

nErrorCode value Meaning
0 Successful
2 File not found
3 Path not found
4 Too many files open
5 Access denied
6 Invalid handle
8 Insufficient memory
15 Invalid drive specified
19 Attempted to write to a write-protected disk
21 Drive not ready
23 Data CRC error
29 Write fault
30 Read fault
32 Sharing violation
33 Lock Violation

FERROR() is a low-level file function that indicates a DOS error after a file function is used.

724.14.88   FIELDBLOCK()

FIELDBLOCK(cFieldName) => bFieldBlock
cFieldName is the name of the field to which the set-get block will refer.

FIELDBLOCK() returns a code block that, when evaluated, sets (assigns) or gets (retrieves) the value of the given field. If cFieldName does not exist in the current work area, FIELDBLOCK() returns NIL.

724.14.89   FIELDGET()

FIELDGET(nField) => ValueField
nField is the ordinal position of the field in the record structure for the current work area.

FIELDGET() returns the value of the specified field. If nField does not correspond to the position of any field in the current database file, FIELDGET() returns NIL.

724.14.90   FIELDNAME()

FIELDNAME(nPosition) => cFieldName
nPosition is the position of a field in the database file structure.

FIELDNAME() returns the name of the specified field as a character string. If nPosition does not correspond to an existing field in the current database file or if no database file is open in the current work area, FIELDNAME() returns a null string ("").

724.14.91   FIELDPOS()

Field position

FIELDPOS(cFieldName) => nFieldPos
cFieldName is the name of a field in the current or specified work area.

FIELDPOS() returns the position of the specified field within the list of fields associated with the current or specified work area. If the current work area has no field with the specified name, FIELDPOS() returns zero.

724.14.92   FIELDPUT()

FIELDPUT(nField, expAssign) => ValueAssigned
nField is the ordinal position of the field in the current database file.
expAssign is the value to assign to the given field. The data type of this expression must match the data type of the designated field variable.

FIELDPUT() is a database function that assigns expAssign to the field at ordinal position nField in the current work area. This function allows you to set the value of a field using its position within the database file structure rather than its field name.

724.14.93   FIELDWBLOCK()

Field work area block

FIELDWBLOCK(cFieldName, nWorkArea) => bFieldWBlock
cFieldName is the name of the field specified as a character string.
nWorkArea is the work area number where the field resides specified as a numeric value.

FIELDWBLOCK() returns a code block that, when evaluated, sets (assigns) or gets (retrieves) the value of cFieldName in the work area designated by nWorkArea. If cFieldName does not exist in the specified work area, FIELDWBLOCK() returns NIL.

724.14.94   FILE()

FILE(cFilespec) => lExists
cFilespec is in the current default directory and path. It is a standard file specification that can include the wildcard characters * and ? as well as a drive and path reference.

FILE() returns true (.T.) if there is a match for any file matching the cFilespec pattern; otherwise, it returns false (.F.).

724.14.95   FLOCK()

File lock

FLOCK() => lSuccess

FLOCK() tries to lock the active alias and returns true (.T.) if it succeeds; otherwise, it returns false (.F.).

724.14.96   FOPEN()

File open

FOPEN(cFile, [nMode]) => nHandle
cFile is the name of the file to open including the path if there is one.
nMode is the requested DOS open mode indicating how the opened file is to be accessed. The open mode is composed of the sum of two elements: the Open mode and the Sharing mode.
Open mode:
0 Open for reading (default)
1 Open for writing
2 Open for reading or writing
Sharing mode:
0 Compatibility mode (default)
16 Exclusive use
32 Prevent others from writing
48 Prevent others from reading
64 Allow others to read or write

FOPEN() returns the file handle of the opened file in the range of zero to 65,535. If an error occurs, FOPEN() returns -1.

724.14.97   FOUND()

FOUND() => lSuccess

FOUND() returns true (.T.) if the last search command was successful; otherwise, it returns false (.F.).

724.14.98   FREAD()

File read

FREAD(nHandle, @cBufferVar, nBytes) => nBytes
nHandle is the file handle obtained from FOPEN(), FCREATE(), or predefined by DOS.
cBufferVar is the name of an existing and initialized character variable used to store data read from the specified file. The length of this variable must be greater than or equal to nBytes. cBufferVar must be passed by reference and, therefore, must be prefaced by the pass-by-reference operator (@).
nBytes is the number of bytes to read into the buffer.

FREAD() tries to read nBytes of the binary file nHandle inside cBufferVar. It returns the number of bytes successfully read as an integer numeric value. A return value less than nBytes or zero indicates end of file or some other read error.

724.14.99   FREADSTR()

File read string

FREADSTR(nHandle, nBytes) => cString
nHandle is the file handle obtained from FOPEN(), FCREATE(), or predefined by DOS.
nBytes is the number of bytes to read, beginning at the current DOS file pointer position.

FREADSTR() returns a character string up to 65,535 (64K) bytes. A null return value ("") indicates an error or end of file. FREADSTR() is a low-level file function that reads characters from an open binary file beginning with the current DOS file pointer position. Characters are read up to nBytes or until a null character (CHR(0)) is encountered. All characters are read including control characters except for CHR(0). The file pointer is then moved forward nBytes. If nBytes is greater than the number of bytes from the pointer position to the end of the file, the file pointer is positioned to the last byte in the file.

724.14.100   FRENAME()

File rename

FRENAME(cOldFile, cNewFile) => nSuccess
cOldFile is the name of the file to rename, including the file extension. A drive letter and/or path name may also be included as part of the filename.
cNewFile is the new name of the file, including the file extension. A drive letter and/or path name may also be included as part of the name.

FRENAME() returns -1 if the operation fails and zero if it succeeds.

724.14.101   FSEEK()

File seek

FSEEK(nHandle, nOffset, [nOrigin]) => nPosition
nHandle is the file handle obtained from FOPEN(), FCREATE(), or predefined by DOS.
nOffset is the number of bytes to move the file pointer from the position defined by nOrigin. It can be a positive or negative number. A positive number moves the pointer forward, and a negative number moves the pointer backward in the file.
nOrigin defines the starting location of the file pointer before FSEEK() is executed. The default value is zero, representing the beginning of file. If nOrigin is the end of file, nOffset must be zero or negative.
nOrigin == 0 Seek from beginning of file
nOrigin == 1 Seek from the current pointer position
nOrigin == 2 Seek from end of file

FSEEK() returns the new position of the file pointer relative to the beginning of file (position 0) as an integer numeric value. This value is without regard to the original position of the file pointer. FSEEK() is a low-level file function that moves the file pointer forward or backward in an open binary file without actually reading the contents of the specified file. The beginning position and offset are specified as function arguments, and the new file position is returned.

724.14.102   FWRITE()

File write

FWRITE(nHandle, cBuffer, [nBytes]) => nBytesWritten
nHandle is the file handle obtained from FOPEN(), FCREATE(), or predefined by DOS.
cBuffer is the character string to write to the specified file.
nBytes indicates the number of bytes to write beginning at the current file pointer position. If omitted, the entire content of cBuffer is written.

FWRITE() returns the number of bytes written as an integer numeric value. If the value returned is equal to nBytes, the operation was successful. If the return value is less than nBytes or zero, either the disk is full or another error has occurred.

724.14.103   GETENV()

Get environment

GETENV(cEnvironmentVariable) => cString
cEnvironmentVariable is the name of the DOS environment variable. When specifying this argument, you can use any combination of upper and lowercase letters; GETENV() is not case- sensitive.

GETENV() returns the contents of the specified DOS environment variable as a character string. If the variable cannot be found, GETENV() returns a null string ("").

724.14.104   HARDCR()

Hard carriage return

HARDCR(cString) => cConvertedString
cString is the character string or memo field to convert.

HARDCR() is a memo function that replaces all soft carriage returns (CHR(141)) with hard carriage returns (CHR(13)). It is used to display long character strings and memo fields containing soft carriage returns with console commands.

724.14.105   HEADER()

HEADER() => nBytes

HEADER() returns the number of bytes in the header of the current database file as an integer numeric value. If no database file is in use, HEADER() returns a zero (0).

724.14.106   I2BIN()

Integer to binary

I2BIN(nInteger) => cBinaryInteger
nInteger is an integer numeric value to convert. Decimal digits are truncated.

I2BIN() returns a two-byte character string containing a 16-bit binary integer.

724.14.107   IF()

[I]IF(lCondition, expTrue, expFalse) => Value
lCondition is a logical expression to be evaluated.
expTrue is the value, a condition-expression, of any data type, returned if lCondition is true (.T.).
expFalse is the value, of any date type, returned if lCondition is false (.F.). This argument need not be the same data type as expTrue.

IF() returns the evaluation of expTrue if lCondition evaluates to true (.T.) and expFalse if it evaluates to false (.F.).

724.14.108   INDEXEXT()

Index extention

INDEXEXT() => cExtension

INDEXEXT() returns the default index file extension by determining which database driver is currently linked.

724.14.109   INDEXKEY()

INDEXKEY(nOrder) => cKeyExp
nOrder is the ordinal position of the index in the list of index files opened by the last USE...INDEX or SET INDEX TO command for the current work area. A zero value specifies the controlling index, without regard to its actual position in the list.

INDEXKEY() returns the key expression of the specified index as a character string. If there is no corresponding index or if no database file is open, INDEXKEY() returns a null string ("").

724.14.110   INDEXORD()

Index order

INDEXORD() => nOrder

INDEXORD() returns an integer numeric value. The value returned is equal to the position of the controlling index in the list of open indexes for the current work area. A value of zero indicates that there is no controlling index and records are being accessed in natural order. If no database file is open, INDEXORD() will also return a zero.

724.14.111   INKEY()

Input key

INKEY([nSeconds]) => nInkeyCode
nSeconds specifies the number of seconds INKEY() waits for a keypress. You can specify the value in increments as small as one-tenth of a second. Specifying zero halts the program until a key is pressed. If nSeconds is omitted, INKEY() does not wait for a keypress.

INKEY() returns an integer numeric value from -39 to 386, identifying the key extracted from the keyboard buffer. If the keyboard buffer is empty, INKEY() returns zero. INKEY() returns values for all ASCII characters, function, Alt+function, Ctrl+function, Alt+letter, and Ctrl+letter key combinations.

nInkeyCode value Key or key combination
5 [Up arrow], [Ctrl]+[E]
24 [Down arrow], [Ctrl]+[X]
19 [Left arrow], [Ctrl]+[S]
4 [Right arrow], [Ctrl]+[D]
1 [Home], [Ctrl]+[A]
6 [End], [Ctrl]+[F]
18 [PgUp], [Ctrl]+[R]
3 [PgDn], [Ctrl]+[C]
397 [Ctrl]+[Up arrow]
401 [Ctrl]+[Down arrow]
26 [Ctrl]+[Left arrow], [Ctrl]+[Z]
2 [Ctrl]+[Right arrow], [Ctrl]+[B]
29 [Ctrl]+[Home]
23 [Ctrl]+[End], [Ctrl]+[W]
31 [Ctrl]+[PgUp], [Ctrl]+[Hyphen]
30 [Ctrl]+[PgDn], [Ctrl]+[^]
408 [Alt]+[Up arrow]
416 [Alt]+[Down arrow]
411 [Alt]+[Left arrow]
413 [Alt]+[Right arrow]
407 [Alt]+[Home]
415 [Alt]+[End]
409 [Alt]+[PgUp]
417 [Alt]+[PgDn]
13 [Enter], [Ctrl]+[M]
32 [Space bar]
27 [Esc]
10 [Ctrl]+[Enter]
379 [Ctrl]+[Print Screen]
309 [Ctrl]+[?]
284 [Alt]+[Enter]
387 [Alt]+[Equals]
257 [Alt]+[Esc]
422 Keypad [Alt]+[Enter]
399 Keypad [Ctrl]+[5]
405 Keypad [Ctrl]+[/]
406 Keypad [Ctrl]+[*]
398 Keypad [Ctrl]+[-]
400 Keypad [Ctrl]+[+]
5 Keypad [Alt]+[5]
420 Keypad [Alt]+[/]
311 Keypad [Alt]+[*]
330 Keypad [Alt]+[-]
334 Keypad [Alt]+[+]
22 [Ins], [Ctrl]+[V]
7 [Del], [Ctrl]+[G]
8 [Backspace], [Ctrl]+[H]
9 [Tab], [Ctrl]+[I]
271 [Shift]+[Tab]
402 [Ctrl]+[Ins]
403 [Ctrl]+[Del]
127 [Ctrl]+[Backspace]
404 [Ctrl]+[Tab]
418 [Alt]+[Ins]
419 [Alt]+[Del]
270 [Alt]+[Backspace]
421 [Alt]+[Tab]
1 [Ctrl]+[A], [Home]
2 [Ctrl]+[B], [Ctrl]+[Right arrow]
3 [Ctrl]+[C], [PgDn], [Ctrl]+[ScrollLock]
4 [Ctrl]+[D], [Right arrow]
5 [Ctrl]+[E], [Up arrow]
6 [Ctrl]+[F], [End]
7 [Ctrl]+[G], [Del]
8 [Ctrl]+[H], [Backspace]
9 [Ctrl]+[I], [Tab]
10 [Ctrl]+[J]
11 [Ctrl]+[K]
12 [Ctrl]+[L]
13 [Ctrl]+[M], [Return]
14 [Ctrl]+[N]
15 [Ctrl]+[O]
16 [Ctrl]+[P]
17 [Ctrl]+[Q]
18 [Ctrl]+[R], [PgUp]
19 [Ctrl]+[S], [Left arrow]
20 [Ctrl]+[T]
21 [Ctrl]+[U]
22 [Ctrl]+[V], [Ins]
23 [Ctrl]+[W], [Ctrl]+[End]
24 [Ctrl]+[X], [Down arrow]
25 [Ctrl]+[Y]
26 [Ctrl]+[Z], [Ctrl]+[Left arrow]
286 [Alt]+[A]
304 [Alt]+[B]
302 [Alt]+[C]
288 [Alt]+[D]
274 [Alt]+[E]
289 [Alt]+[F]
290 [Alt]+[G]
291 [Alt]+[H]
279 [Alt]+[I]
292 [Alt]+[J]
293 [Alt]+[K]
294 [Alt]+[L]
306 [Alt]+[M]
305 [Alt]+[N]
280 [Alt]+[O]
281 [Alt]+[P]
272 [Alt]+[Q]
275 [Alt]+[R]
287 [Alt]+[S]
276 [Alt]+[T]
278 [Alt]+[U]
303 [Alt]+[V]
273 [Alt]+[W]
301 [Alt]+[X]
277 [Alt]+[Y]
300 [Alt]+[Z]
376 [Alt]+[1]
377 [Alt]+[2]
378 [Alt]+[3]
379 [Alt]+[4]
380 [Alt]+[5]
381 [Alt]+[6]
382 [Alt]+[7]
383 [Alt]+[8]
384 [Alt]+[9]
385 [Alt]+[0]
28 [F1], [Ctrl]+[Backslash]
-1 [F2]
-2 [F3]
-3 [F4]
-4 [F5]
-5 [F6]
-6 [F7]
-7 [F8]
-8 [F9]
-9 [F10]
-40 [F11]
-41 [F12]
-20 [Ctrl]+[F1]
-21 [Ctrl]+[F2]
-22 [Ctrl]+[F4]
-23 [Ctrl]+[F3]
-24 [Ctrl]+[F5]
-25 [Ctrl]+[F6]
-26 [Ctrl]+[F7]
-27 [Ctrl]+[F8]
-28 [Ctrl]+[F9]
-29 [Ctrl]+[F10]
-44 [Ctrl]+[F11]
-45 [Ctrl]+[F12]
-30 [Alt]+[F1]
-31 [Alt]+[F2]
-32 [Alt]+[F3]
-33 [Alt]+[F4]
-34 [Alt]+[F5]
-35 [Alt]+[F6]
-36 [Alt]+[F7]
-37 [Alt]+[F8]
-38 [Alt]+[F9]
-39 [Alt]+[F10]
-46 [Alt]+[F11]
-47 [Alt]+[F12]
-10 [Shift]+[F1]
-11 [Shift]+[F2]
-12 [Shift]+[F3]
-13 [Shift]+[F4]
-14 [Shift]+[F5]
-15 [Shift]+[F6]
-16 [Shift]+[F7]
-17 [Shift]+[F8]
-18 [Shift]+[F9]
-19 [Shift]+[F10]
-42 [Shift]+[F11]
-43 [Shift]+[F12]

724.14.112   INT()

Integer

INT(nExp) => nInteger
nExp is a numeric expression to convert to an integer.

INT() is a numeric function that converts a numeric value to an integer by truncating all digits to the right of the decimal point. INT() is useful in operations where the decimal portion of a number is not needed.

724.14.113   ISALPHA()

ISALPHA(cString) => lBoolean
cString is the character string to examine.

ISALPHA() returns true (.T.) if the first character in cString is alphabetic; otherwise, it returns false (.F.).

724.14.114   ISCOLOR()

ISCOLOR() | ISCOLOUR() => lBoolean

ISCOLOR() returns true (.T.) if there is a color graphics card installed; otherwise, it returns false (.F.).

724.14.115   ISDIGIT()

ISDIGIT(cString) => lBoolean
cString is the character string to examine.

ISDIGIT() returns true (.T.) if the first character of the character string is a digit between zero and nine; otherwise, it returns false (.F.).

724.14.116   ISLOWER()

ISLOWER(cString) => lBoolean
cString is the character string to examine.

ISLOWER() returns true (.T.) if the first character of the character string is a lowercase letter; otherwise, it returns false (.F.).

724.14.117   ISPRINTER()

ISPRINTER() => lReady

ISPRINTER() returns true (.T.) if LPT1: is ready; otherwise, it returns false (.F.).

724.14.118   ISUPPER()

ISUPPER(cString) => lBoolean
cString is the character string to examine.

ISUPPER() returns true (.T.) if the first character is an uppercase letter; otherwise, it returns false (.F.).

724.14.119   L2BIN()

Long to binary

L2BIN(nExp) => cBinaryInteger
nExp is the numeric value to convert. Decimal digits are truncated.

L2BIN() returns a four-byte character string formatted as a 32- bit binary integer.

724.14.120   LASTKEY()

LASTKEY() => nInkeyCode

LASTKEY() is a keyboard function that reports the INKEY() value of the last key fetched from the keyboard buffer by the INKEY() function, or a wait state. LASTKEY() retains its current value until another key is fetched from the keyboard buffer.

724.14.121   LASTREC()

Last record

LASTREC() => nRecords

LASTREC() returns the number of physical records in the active alias as an integer numeric value.

724.14.122   LEFT()

LEFT(cString, nCount) => cSubString
cString is a character string from which to extract characters.
nCount is the number of characters to extract.

LEFT() returns the leftmost nCount characters of cString as a character string. If nCount is negative or zero, LEFT() returns a null string (""). If nCount is larger than the length of the character string, LEFT() returns the entire string.

724.14.123   LEN()

Length

LEN(cString | aTarget) => nCount
cString is the character string to count.
aTarget is the array to count.

LEN() returns the length of a character string or the number of elements in an array as an integer numeric value.

724.14.124   LOG()

LOG(nExp) => nNaturalLog
nExp is a numeric value greater than zero to convert to its natural logarithm.

LOG() returns the natural logarithm as a numeric value. If nExp is less than or equal to zero, LOG() returns a numeric overflow (displayed as a row of asterisks).

724.14.125   LOWER()

LOWER(cString) => cLowerString
cString is a character string to convert to lowercase.

LOWER() returns a copy of cString with all alphabetic characters converted to lowercase.

724.14.126   LTRIM()

Left trim

LTRIM(cString) => cTrimString
cString is the character string to copy without leading spaces.

LTRIM() returns a copy of cString with the leading spaces removed.

724.14.127   LUPDATE()

Last update

LUPDATE() => dModification

LUPDATE() returns the date of last change to the open database file in the current work area.

724.14.128   MAX()

MAX(nExp1, nExp2) => nLarger
MAX(dExp1, dExp2) => dLarger
nExp1, nExp2 are the numeric values to compare.
dExp1, dExp2 are the date values to compare.

MAX() returns the larger of the two arguments. The value returned is the same type as the arguments.

724.14.129   MAXCOL()

Max column

MAXCOL() => nColumn

MAXCOL() returns the column number of the rightmost visible column for display purposes.

724.14.130   MAXROW()

MAXROW() => nRow

MAXROW() returns the row number of the bottommost visible row for display purposes.

724.14.131   MEMOEDIT()

MEMOEDIT([cString],
     [nTop], [nLeft],
     [nBottom], [nRight],
     [lEditMode],
     [cUserFunction],
     [nLineLength],
     [nTabSize],
     [nTextBufferRow],
     [nTextBufferColumn],
     [nWindowRow],
     [nWindowColumn]) => cTextBuffer
cString is the character string or memo field to copy to the MEMOEDIT() text buffer.
nTop, nLeft, nBottom, nRight are window coordinates. The default coordinates are 0, 0, MAXROW(), and MAXCOL().
lEditMode determines whether the text buffer can be edited or merely displayed. If not specified, the default value is true (.T.).
cUserFunction is the name of a user-defined function that executes when the user presses a key not recognized by MEMOEDIT() and when no keys are pending in the keyboard buffer.
nLineLength determines the length of lines displayed in the MEMOEDIT() window. If a line is greater than nLineLength, it is word wrapped to the next line in the MEMOEDIT() window. The default line length is (nRight - nLeft).
nTabSize determines the size of a tab character to insert when the user presses Tab. The default is four.
nTextBufferRow, nTextBufferColumn define the display position of the cursor within the text buffer when MEMOEDIT() is invoked. nTextBufferRow begins with one and nTextBufferColumn begins with zero. Default is the beginning of MEMOEDIT() window.
nWindowRow, nWindowColumn define the initial position of the cursor within the MEMOEDIT() window. Row and column positions begin with zero. If these arguments are not specified, the initial window position is row zero and the current cursor column position.

MEMOEDIT() is a user interface and general purpose text editing function that edits memo fields and long character strings. Editing occurs within a specified window region placed anywhere on the screen.

[Uparrow]/[Ctrl]+E Move up one line
[Dnarrow]/[Ctrl]+X Move down one line
[Leftarrow]/[Ctrl]+S Move left one character
[Rightarrow]/[Ctrl]+D Move right one character
[Ctrl]-[Leftarrow]/[Ctrl]+A Move left one word
[Ctrl]-[Rightarrow]/[Ctrl]+F Move right one word
[Home] Move to beginning of current line
[End] Move to end of current line
[Ctrl]+[Home] Move to beginning of current window
[Ctrl]+[End] Move to end of current window
[PgUp] Move to previous edit window
[PgDn] Move to next edit window
[Ctrl]+[PgUp] Move to beginning of memo
[Ctrl]+[PgDn] Move to end of memo
[Return] Move to beginning of next line
[Delete] Delete character at cursor
[Backspace] Delete character to left of cursor
[Tab] Insert tab character or spaces
Printable characters Insert character
[Ctrl]+Y Delete the current line
[Ctrl]+T Delete word right
[Ctrl]+B Reform paragraph
[Ctrl]+V/[Ins] Toggle insert mode
[Ctrl]+W Finish editing with save
[Esc] Abort edit and return original

724.14.132   MEMOLINE()

MEMOLINE(cString,
     [nLineLength],
     [nLineNumber],
     [nTabSize],
     [lWrap]) => cLine
cString is the memo field or character string from which to extract a line of text.
nLineLength specifies the number of characters per line and can be between four and 254 . If not specified, the default line length is 79.
nLineNumber is the line number to extract. If not specified, the default value is one.
nTabSize defines the tab size. If not specified, the default value is four.
lWrap toggles word wrap on and off. Specifying true (.T.) toggles word wrap on; false (.F.) toggles it off. If not specified, the default value is true (.T.).

MEMOLINE() returns the line of text specified by nLineNumber in cString as a character string. If the line has fewer characters than the indicated length, the return value is padded with blanks. If the line number is greater than the total number of lines in cString, MEMOLINE() returns a null string (""). If lWrap is true (.T.) and the indicated line length breaks the line in the middle of a word, that word is not included as part of the return value but shows up at the beginning of the next line extracted with MEMOLINE(). If lWrap is false (.F.), MEMOLINE() returns only the number of characters specified by the line length. The next line extracted by MEMOLINE() begins with the character following the next hard carriage return, and all intervening characters are not processed.

724.14.133   MEMOREAD()

MEMOREAD(cFile) => cString
cFile is the name of the file to read from disk. It must include an extension if there is one, and can optionally include a path.

MEMOREAD() returns the contents of a text file as a character string.

724.14.134   MEMORY()

MEMORY(nExp) => nKbytes
nExp is a numeric value that determines the type of value MEMORY() returns.

MEMORY() returns an integer numeric value representing the amount of memory available.

MEMORY(0) Estimated total space available for character values
MEMORY(1) Largest contiguous block available for character values
MEMORY(2) Area available for RUN commands

724.14.135   MEMOTRAN()

Memo translate

MEMOTRAN(cString,
     [cReplaceHardCR],
     [cReplaceSoftCR]) => cNewString
cString is the character string or memo field to search.
cReplaceHardCR is the character to replace a hard carriage return/linefeed pair with. If not specified, the default value is a semicolon (;).
cReplaceSoftCR is the character to replace a soft carriage return/linefeed pair with. If not specified, the default value is a space.

MEMOTRAN() returns a copy of cString with the specified carriage return/linefeed pairs replaced.

724.14.136   MEMOWRIT()

Memo write

MEMOWRIT(cFile, cString) => lSuccess
cFile is the name of the target disk file including the file extension and optional path and drive designator.
cString is the character string or memo field to write to cFile.

MEMOWRIT() is a memo function that writes a character string or memo field to a disk file. If a path is not specified, MEMOWRIT() writes cFile to the current DOS directory and not the current DEFAULT directory. If cFile already exists, it is overwritten. MEMOWRIT() returns true (.T.) if the writing operation is successful; otherwise, it returns false (.F.).

724.14.137   MEMVARBLOCK()

MEMVARBLOCK(cMemvarName) => bMemvarBlock
cMemvarName is the name of the variable referred to by the set-get block, specified as a character string.

MEMVARBLOCK() returns a code block that when evaluated sets (assigns) or gets (retrieves) the value of the given memory variable. If cMemvarName does not exist, MEMVARBLOCK() returns NIL.

724.14.138   MIN()

MIN(nExp1, nExp2) => nSmaller
MIN(dExp1, dExp2) => dSmaller
nExp1, nExp2 are the numeric values to compare.
dExp1, dExp2 are the date values to compare.

MIN() returns the smaller of the two arguments. The value returned is the same data type as the arguments.

724.14.139   MLCOUNT()

Memo line count

MLCOUNT(cString, [nLineLength],
     [nTabSize], [lWrap]) => nLines
cString is the character string or memo field to count.
nLineLength specifies the number of characters per line and can range from four to 254 . If not specified, the default line length is 79.
nTabSize defines the tab size. If not specified, the default value is four.
lWrap toggles word wrap on and off. Specifying true (.T.) toggles word wrap on; false (.F.) toggles it off. If not specified, the default value is true (.T.).

MLCOUNT() returns the number of lines in cString depending on the nLineLength, the nTabSize, and whether word wrapping is on or off.

724.14.140   MLCTOPOS()

Memo line column to position

MLCTOPOS(cText, nWidth, nLine,
     nCol, [nTabSize], [lWrap]) => nPosition
cText is the text string to scan.
nWidth is the line length formatting width.
nLine is the line number counting from 1.
nCol is the column number counting from 0.
nTabSize is the number of columns between tab stops. If not specified, the default is 4.
lWrap is the word wrap flag. If not specified, the default is true (.T.).

MLCTOPOS() returns the byte position within cText counting from 1.

724.14.141   MLPOS()

Memo line position

MLPOS(cString, nLineLength,
     nLine, [nTabSize], [lWrap]) => nPosition
cString is a character string or memo field.
nLineLength specifies the number of characters per line.
nLine specifies the line number.
nTabSize defines the tab size. The default is four.
lWrap toggles word wrap on and off. Specifying true (.T.) toggles word wrap on, and false (.F.) toggles it off. The default is true (.T.).

MLPOS() returns the character position of nLine in cString as an integer numeric value. If nLine is greater than the number of lines in cString, MLPOS() returns the length of cString.

724.14.142   MONTH()

MONTH(dDate) => nMonth
dDate is the date value to convert.

MONTH() returns an integer numeric value in the range of zero to 12. Specifying a null date (CTOD("")) returns zero.

724.14.143   MPOSTOLC()

Memo position to line column

MPOSTOLC(cText, nWidth, nPos,
     [nTabSize], [lWrap]) => aLineColumn
cText is a text string.
nWidth is the length of the formatted line.
nPos is the byte position within text counting from one.
nTabSize is the number of columns between tab stops. If not specified, the default is four.
lWrap is the word wrap flag. If not specified, the default is true (.T.).

MPOSTOLC() returns an array containing the line and the column values for the specified byte position, nPos. MPOSTOLC() is a memo function that determines the formatted line and column corresponding to a particular byte position within cText. Note that the line number returned is one-relative, the column number is zero-relative. This is compatible with MEMOEDIT(). nPos is one-relative, compatible with AT(), RAT(), and other string functions.

724.14.144   NETERR()

Net error

NETERR([lNewError]) => lError
lNewError if specified sets the value returned by NETERR() to the specified status. lNewError can be either true (.T.) or false (.F.). Setting NETERR() to a specified value allows the runtime error handler to control the way certain file errors are handled.

NETERR() returns true (.T.) if a USE or APPEND BLANK fails. The initial value of NETERR() is false (.F.). If the current process is not running under a network operating system, NETERR() always returns false (.F.).

724.14.145   NETNAME()

NETNAME() => cWorkstationName

NETNAME() returns the workstation identification as a character string up to 15 characters in length. If the workstation identification was never set or the application is not operating under the IBM PC Network, it returns a null string ("").

724.14.146   NEXTKEY()

NEXTKEY() => nInkeyCode

NEXTKEY() returns an integer numeric value ranging from -39 to 386. If the keyboard buffer is empty, NEXTKEY() returns zero. If SET TYPEAHEAD is zero, NEXTKEY() always returns zero. NEXTKEY() is like the INKEY() function, but differs in one fundamental respect. INKEY() removes the pending key from the keyboard buffer and updates LASTKEY() with the value of the key. NEXTKEY(), by contrast, reads, but does not remove the key from the keyboard buffer and does not update LASTKEY().

724.14.147   NOSNOW()

NOSNOW(lToggle) => NIL
lToggle is a logical value that toggles the current state of snow suppression. A value of true (.T.) enables the snow suppression on, while a value of false (.F.) disables snow suppression.

NOSNOW() is used to suppress snow on old CGA monitors.

724.14.148   ORDBAGEXT()

ORDBAGEXT() => cBagExt

ORDBAGEXT() returns a character expression that is the default Order Bag extension of the current work area. cBagExt is determined by the RDD active in the current work area.

724.14.149   ORDBAGNAME()

ORDBAGNAME(nOrder | cOrderName) => cOrderBagName
nOrder is an integer that identifies the position in the Order List of the target Order whose Order Bag name is sought.
cOrderName is a character string that represents the name of the target Order whose Order Bag name is sought.

ORDBAGNAME() returns a character string, the Order Bag name of the specific Order.

724.14.150   ORDCREATE()

ORDCREATE(cOrderBagName,[cOrderName], cExpKey, [bExpKey],
     [lUnique]) => NIL
cOrderBagName is the name of a disk file containing one or more Orders.
cOrderName is the name of the Order to be created.
cExpKey is an expression that returns the key value to place in the Order for each record in the current work area. The maximum length of the index key expression is determined by the database driver.
bExpKey is a code block that evaluates to a key value that is placed in the Order for each record in the current work area.
lUnique specifies whether a unique Order is to be created. Default is the current global _SET_UNIQUE setting.

ORDCREATE() is an Order management function that creates an Order in the current work area. It works like DBCREATEINDEX() except that it lets you create Orders in RDDs that recognize multiple Order Bags.

724.14.151   ORDDESTROY()

ORDDESTROY(cOrderName [, cOrderBagName ]) => NIL
cOrderName is the name of the Order to be removed from the current or specified work area.
cOrderBagName is the name of a disk file containing one or more Orders.

ORDDESTROY() is an Order management function that removes a specified Order from multiple-Order Bags. ORDDESTROY() is not supported for DBFNDX and DBFNTX.

724.14.152   ORDFOR()

ORDFOR(cOrderName | nOrder [, cOrderBagName]) => cForExp
cOrderName is the name of the target Order, whose cForExp is sought.
nOrder is an integer that identifies the position in the Order List of the target Order whose cForExp is sought.
cOrderBagName is the name of an Order Bag containing one or more Orders.

ORDFOR() returns a character expression, cForExp, that represents the FOR condition of the specified Order. If the Order was not created using the FOR clause the return value will be an empty string (""). If the database driver does not support the FOR condition, it may either return an empty string ("") or raise an "unsupported function" error, depending on the driver.

724.14.153   ORDKEY()

ORDKEY(cOrderName | nOrder [, cOrderBagName]) => cExpKey
cOrderName is the name of an Order, a logical ordering of a database.
nOrder is an integer that identifies the position in the Order List of the target Order whose cExpKey is sought.
cOrderBagName is the name of a disk file containing one or more Orders.

ORDKEY() is an Order management function that returns a character expression, cExpKey, that represents the key expression of the specified Order.

724.14.154   ORDLISTADD()

ORDLISTADD(cOrderBagName [, cOrderName]) => NIL
cOrderBagName is the name of a disk file containing one or more Orders.
cOrderName the name of the specific Order from the Order Bag to be added to the Order List of the current work area. If you do not specify cOrderName, all orders in the Order Bag are added to the Order List of the current work area.

ORDLISTADD() is an Order management function that adds the contents of an Order Bag , or a single Order in an Order Bag, to the Order List. Any Orders already associated with the work area continue to be active. If the newly opened Order Bag contains the only Order associated with the work area, it becomes the controlling Order; otherwise, the controlling Order remains unchanged.

724.14.155   ORDLISTCLEAR()

ORDLISTCLEAR() => NIL

ORDLISTCLEAR() is an Order management function that removes all Orders from the Order List for the current work area.

724.14.156   ORDLISTREBUILD()

ORDLISTREBUILD() => NIL

ORDLISTREBUILD() is an Order management function that rebuilds all the orders in the current Order List.

724.14.157   ORDNAME()

ORDNAME(nOrder[,cOrderBagName]) => cOrderName
nOrder is an integer that identifies the position in the Order List of the target Order whose database name is sought.
cOrderBagName is the name of a disk file containing one or more Orders.

ORDNAME() returns the name of the specified Order in the current Order List or the specified Order Bag if opened in the Current Order list.

724.14.158   ORDNUMBER()

ORDNUMBER(cOrderName [, cOrderBagName]) => nOrderNo
cOrderName the name of the specific Order whose position in the Order List is sought.
cOrderBagName is the name of a disk file containing one or more Orders.

ORDNUMBER() returns nOrderNo, an integer that represents the position of the specified Order in the Order List.

724.14.159   ORDSETFOCUS()

ORDSETFOCUS([cOrderName | nOrder] [,cOrderBagName])
     => cPrevOrderNameInFocus
cOrderName is the name of the selected Order, a logical ordering of a database.
nOrder is a number representing the position in the Order List of the selected Order.
cOrderBagName is the name of a disk file containing one or more Orders.

ORDSETFOCUS() is an Order management function that returns the Order Name of the previous controlling Order and optionally sets the focus to an new Order.

724.14.160   OS()

OS() => cOsName

OS() returns the operating system name as a character string.

724.14.161   OUTERR()

Output error

OUTERR(exp_list) => NIL
exp_list is a list of values to display and can consist of any combination of data types including memo.

OUTERR() is identical to OUTSTD() except that it writes to the standard error device rather than the standard output device. Output sent to the standard error device bypasses the console and output devices as well as any DOS redirection. It is typically used to log error messages in a manner that will not interfere with the standard screen or printer output.

724.14.162   OUTSTD()

Output standard

OUTSTD(exp_list) => NIL
exp_list is a list of values to display and can consist of any combination of data types including memo.

OUTSTD() is a simple output function similar to QOUT(), except that it writes to the STDOUT device (instead of to the console output stream).

724.14.163   PAD?()

PADL(exp, nLength, [cFillChar]) => cPaddedString
PADC(exp, nLength, [cFillChar]) => cPaddedString
PADR(exp, nLength, [cFillChar]) => cPaddedString
exp is a character, numeric, or date value to pad with a fill character.
nLength is the length of the character string to return.
cFillChar is the character to pad exp with. If not specified, the default is a space character.

PADC(), PADL(), and PADR() are character functions that pad character, date, and numeric values with a fill character to create a new character string of a specified length. PADC() centers exp within nLength adding fill characters to the left and right sides; PADL() adds fill characters on the left side; and PADR() adds fill characters on the right side.

724.14.164   PCOL()

Printed column

PCOL() => nColumn

PCOL() returns an integer numeric value representing the last printed column position, plus one. The beginning column position is zero.

724.14.165   PROW()

Printed row

PROW() => nRow

PROW() returns an integer numeric value that represents the number of the current line sent to the printer. The beginning row position is zero.

724.14.166   QOUT()

QOUT([exp_list]) => NIL
QQOUT([exp_list]) => NIL
exp_list is a comma-separated list of expressions (of any data type other than array or block) to display to the console. If no argument is specified and QOUT() is specified, a carriage return/linefeed pair is displayed. If QQOUT() is specified without arguments, nothing displays.

QOUT() and QQOUT() are console functions. They display the results of one or more expressions to the console. QOUT() outputs carriage return and linefeed characters before displaying the results of exp_list. QQOUT() displays the results of exp_list at the current ROW() and COL() position. When QOUT() and QQOUT() display to the console, ROW() and COL() are updated.

724.14.167   RAT()

Right at

RAT(cSearch, cTarget) => nPosition
cSearch is the character string to locate.
cTarget is the character string to search.

RAT() returns the position of cSearch within cTarget as an integer numeric value, starting the search from the right. If cSearch is not found, RAT() returns zero.

724.14.168   RDDLIST()

RDDLIST([nRDDType]) => aRDDList
nRDDType is an integer that represents the type of the RDD you wish to list.
nRDDType = 1 Full RDD implementation
nRDDType = 2 Import/Export only driver.

RDDLIST() returns a one-dimensional array of the RDD names registered with the application as nRDDType.

724.14.169   RDDNAME()

RDDNAME() => cRDDName

RDDNAME() returns a character string, cRDDName, the registered name of the active RDD in the current or specified work area.

724.14.170   RDDSETDEFAULT()

RDDSETDEFAULT([cNewDefaultRDD]) => cPreviousDefaultRDD
cNewDefaultRDD is a character string, the name of the RDD that is to be made the new default RDD in the application.

RDDSETDEFAULT() is an RDD function that sets or returns the name of the previous default RDD driver and, optionally, sets the current driver to the new RDD driver specified by cNewDefaultRDD.

724.14.171   READINSERT()

READINSERT([lToggle]) => lCurrentMode
lToggle toggles the insert mode on or off. True (.T.) turns insert on, while false (.F.) turns insert off. The default is false (.F.) or the last user-selected mode in READ or MEMOEDIT().

READINSERT() returns the current insert mode state as a logical value.

724.14.172   READMODAL()

READMODAL(aGetList) => NIL
aGetList is an array containing a list of Get objects to edit.

READMODAL() is like the READ command, but takes a GetList array as an argument and does not reinitialize the GetList array when it terminates. The GET system is implemented using a public array called GetList. Each time an @...GET command executes, it creates a Get object and adds to the currently visible GetList array. The standard READ command is preprocessed into a call to READMODAL() using the GetList array as its argument.

724.14.173   READVAR()

READVAR() => cVarName

READVAR() returns the name of the variable associated with the current Get object or the variable being assigned by the current MENU TO command as an uppercase character string.

724.14.174   RECNO()

Record number

RECNO() => nRecord

RECNO() returns the current record number as an integer numeric value. If the work area contains a database file with zero records, RECNO() returns one, BOF() and EOF() both return true (.T.), and LASTREC() returns zero. If the record pointer is moved past the last record, RECNO() returns LASTREC() + 1 and EOF() returns true (.T.). If an attempt is made to move before the first record, RECNO() returns the record number of the first logical record in the database file and BOF() returns true (.T.). If no database file is open, RECNO() will return a zero.

724.14.175   RECSIZE()

Record size

RECSIZE() => nBytes

RECSIZE() returns, as a numeric value, the record length, in bytes, of the database file open in the current work area. RECSIZE() returns zero if no database file is open.

724.14.176   REPLICATE()

REPLICATE(cString, nCount) => cRepeatedString
cString is the character string to repeat.
nCount is the number of times to repeat cString.

REPLICATE() returns a character string. Specifying a zero as the nCount argument returns a null string ("").

724.14.177   RESTSCREEN()

Restore screen

RESTSCREEN([nTop], [nLeft],
     [nBottom], [nRight], cScreen) => NIL
nTop, nLeft, nBottom, nRight define the coordinates of the screen information contained in cScreen. If the cScreen was saved without coordinates to preserve the entire screen, no screen coordinates are necessary with RESTSCREEN().
cScreen is a character string containing the saved screen region.

RESTSCREEN() is a screen function that redisplays a screen region saved with SAVESCREEN(). The target screen location may be the same as or different than the original location when the screen region was saved.

724.14.178   RIGHT()

RIGHT(cString, nCount) => cSubString
cString is the character string from which to extract characters.
nCount is the number of characters to extract.

RIGHT() returns the rightmost nCount characters of cString. If nCount is zero, RIGHT() returns a null string (""). If nCount is negative or larger than the length of the character string, RIGHT() returns cString.

724.14.179   RLOCK()

Record lock

RLOCK() => lSuccess

RLOCK() is a network function that locks the current record, preventing other users from updating the record until the lock is released. RLOCK() provides a shared lock, allowing other users read-only access to the locked record while allowing only the current user to modify it. A record lock remains until another record is locked, an UNLOCK is executed, the current database file is closed, or an FLOCK() is obtained on the current database file.

724.14.180   ROUND()

ROUND(nNumber, nDecimals) => nRounded
nNumber is the numeric value to round.
nDecimals defines the number of decimal places to retain. Specifying a negative nDecimals value rounds whole number digits.

ROUND() is a numeric function that rounds nNumber to the number of places specified by nDecimals. Specifying a zero or negative value for nDecimals allows rounding of whole numbers. A negative nDecimals indicates the number of digits to the left of the decimal point to round. Digits between five to nine, inclusive, are rounded up. Digits below five are rounded down.

724.14.181   ROW()

ROW() => nRow

ROW() returns the cursor row position as an integer numeric value. The range of the return value is zero to MAXROW().

724.14.182   RTRIM()

Right trim

[R]TRIM(cString) => cTrimString
cString is the character string to copy without trailing spaces.

RTRIM() returns a copy of cString with the trailing spaces removed. If cString is a null string ("") or all spaces, RTRIM() returns a null string ("").

724.14.183   SAVESCREEN()

SAVESCREEN([nTop], [nLeft],
     [nBottom], [nRight]) => cScreen
nTop, nLeft, nBottom, nRight define the coordinates of the screen region to save. Default is the entire screen.

SAVESCREEN() returns the specified screen region as a character string.

724.14.184   SCROLL()

SCROLL([nTop], [nLeft],
     [nBottom], [nRight], [nVert] [nHoriz]) => NIL

nTop, nLeft, nBottom, nRight define the scroll region coordinates.

nVert defines the number of rows to scroll, vertically. A positive value scrolls up the specified number of rows. A negative value scrolls down the specified number of rows. A value of zero disables vertical scrolling. If nVert is not specified, zero is assumed.
nHoriz defines the number of rows to scroll horizontally. A positive value scrolls left the specified number of columns. A negative value scrolls right the specified number of columns. A value of zero disables horizontal scrolling. If nHoriz is not specified, zero is assumed. If you supply neither nVert or nHoriz parameters to SCROLL(), the area specified by the first four parameters will be blanked.

SCROLL() is a screen function that scrolls a screen region up or down a specified number of rows. When a screen scrolls up, the first line of the region is erased, all other lines are moved up, and a blank line is displayed in the current standard color on the bottom line of the specified region. If the region scrolls down, the operation is reversed. If the screen region is scrolled more than one line, this process is repeated.

724.14.185   SECONDS()

SECONDS() => nSeconds

SECONDS() returns the system time as a numeric value in the form seconds.hundredths. The numeric value returned is the number of seconds elapsed since midnight, and is based on a twenty-four hour clock in a range from zero to 86399.

724.14.186   SELECT()

SELECT([cAlias]) => nWorkArea
cAlias is the target work area alias name.

SELECT() returns the work area of the specified alias as a integer numeric value.

724.14.187   SET()

SET(nSpecifier, [expNewSetting], [lOpenMode])
     => CurrentSetting
nSpecifier is a numeric value that identifies the setting to be inspected or changed.
expNewSetting is an optional argument that specifies a new value for the nSpecifier. The type of expNewSetting depends on nSpecifier.
lOpenMode is a logical value that indicates whether or not files are opened for some settings. A value of false (.F.) means the file should be truncated. A value of true (.T.) means the file should be opened in append mode. In either case, if the file does not exist, it is created. If this argument is not specified, the default is append mode.

SET() returns the current value of the specified setting.

Inside nB, the function SET() is not so easy to use as inside the Clipper environment. This because nB cannot support manifest constants and a numeric specifier nSpecifier is not easy to manage. Instead of SET() you can use SETVERB().

724.14.188   SETBLINK()

SETBLINK([lToggle]) => lCurrentSetting
lToggle changes the meaning of the asterisk (*) character when it is encountered in a SETCOLOR() string. Specifying true (.T.) sets character blinking on and false (.F.) sets background intensity. The default is true (.T.).

SETBLINK() returns the current setting as a logical value.

724.14.189   SETCANCEL()

SETCANCEL([lToggle]) => lCurrentSetting
lToggle changes the availability of Alt-C and Ctrl-Break as termination keys. Specifying true (.T.) allows either of these keys to terminate an application and false (.F.) disables both keys. The default is true (.T.).

SETCANCEL() returns the current setting as a logical value.

724.14.190   SETCOLOR()

SETCOLOR([cColorString]) => cColorString
cColorString is a character string containing a list of color attribute settings for subsequent screen painting.

724.14.191   SETCURSOR()

SETCURSOR([nCursorShape]) => nCurrentSetting
nCursorShape is a number indicating the shape of the cursor.
nCursorShape == 0 None
nCursorShape == 1 Underline
nCursorShape == 2 Lower half block
nCursorShape == 3 Full block
nCursorShape == 4 Upper half block

SETCURSOR() returns the current cursor shape as a numeric value.

724.14.192   SETKEY()

SETKEY(nInkeyCode, [bAction]) => bCurrentAction
nInkeyCode is the INKEY() value of the key to be associated or queried.
bAction specifies a code block that is automatically executed whenever the specified key is pressed during a wait state.

SETKEY() returns the action block currently associated with the specified key, or NIL if the specified key is not currently associated with a block.

724.14.193   SETMODE()

SETMODE(nRows, nCols) => lSuccess
nRows is the number of rows in the desired display mode.
nCols is the number of columns in the desired display mode.

SETMODE() is an environment function that attempts to change the mode of the display hardware to match the number of rows and columns specified. The change in screen size is reflected in the values returned by MAXROW() and MAXCOL().

724.14.194   SETPOS()

Set position

SETPOS(nRow, nCol) => NIL
nRow, nCol define the new screen position of the cursor. These values may range from 0, 0 to MAXROW(), MAXCOL().

SETPOS() is an environment function that moves the cursor to a new position on the screen. After the cursor is positioned, ROW() and COL() are updated accordingly.

724.14.195   SETPRC()

Set printer row column

SETPRC(nRow, nCol) => NIL
nRow is the new PROW() value.
nCol is the new PCOL() value.

SETPRC() is a printer function that sends control codes to the printer without changing the tracking of the printhead position.

724.14.196   SOUNDEX()

SOUNDEX(cString) => cSoundexString
cString is the character string to convert.

SOUNDEX() returns a four-digit character string in the form A999.

724.14.197   SPACE()

SPACE(nCount) => cSpaces
nCount is the number of spaces to return.

SPACE() returns a character string. If nCount is zero, SPACE() returns a null string ("").

724.14.198   SQRT()

SQRT(nNumber) => nRoot
nNumber is a positive number to take the square root of.

SQRT() returns a numeric value calculated to double precision. The number of decimal places displayed is determined solely by SET DECIMALS regardless of SET FIXED. A negative nNumber returns zero.

724.14.199   STR()

String

STR(nNumber, [nLength], [nDecimals]) => cNumber
nNumber is the numeric expression to convert to a character string.
nLength is the length of the character string to return, including decimal digits, decimal point, and sign.
nDecimals is the number of decimal places to return.

STR() returns nNumber formatted as a character string.

724.14.200   STRTRAN()

STRTRAN(cString, cSearch,
     [cReplace], [nStart], [nCount]) => cNewString
cString is the character string or memo field to search.
cSearch is the sequence of characters to locate.
cReplace is the sequence of characters with which to replace cSearch. If this argument is not specified, the specified instances of the search argument are replaced with a null string ("").
nStart is the first occurrence that will be replaced. If this argument is omitted, the default is one.
nCount is the number of occurrences to replace. If this argument is not specified, the default is all.

STRTRAN() returns a new character string with the specified instances of cSearch replaced with cReplace.

724.14.201   STUFF()

STUFF(cString, nStart,
     nDelete, cInsert) => cNewString
cString is the target character string into which characters are inserted and deleted.
nStart is the starting position in the target string where the insertion/deletion occurs.
nDelete is the number of characters to delete.
cInsert is the string to insert.

STUFF() returns a copy of cString with the specified characters deleted and with cInsert inserted.

724.14.202   SUBSTR()

Sub string

SUBSTR(cString, nStart, [nCount]) => cSubstring
cString is the character string from which to extract a substring.
nStart is the starting position in cString. If nStart is positive, it is relative to the leftmost character in cString. If nStart is negative, it is relative to the rightmost character in the cString.
nCount is the number of characters to extract. If omitted, the substring begins at nStart and continues to the end of the string. If nCount is greater than the number of characters from nStart to the end of cString, the extra is ignored.

SUBSTR() is a character function that extracts a substring from another character string or memo field.

724.14.203   TIME()

TIME() => cTimeString

TIME() returns the system time as a character string in the form hh:mm:ss. hh is hours in 24-hour format, mm is minutes, and ss is seconds.

TIME() is a time function that displays the system time on the screen or prints it on a report.

724.14.204   TONE()

TONE(nFrequency, nDuration) => NIL
nFrequency is a positive numeric value indicating the frequency of the tone to sound.
nDuration is a positive numeric value indicating the duration of the tone measured in increments of 1/18 of a second. For example, an nDuration value of 18 represents one second.

For both arguments, noninteger values are truncated (not rounded) to their integer portion.

724.14.205   TRANSFORM()

TRANSFORM(exp, cSayPicture) => cFormatString
exp is the value to format. This expression can be any valid data type except array, code block, and NIL.
cSayPicture is a string of picture and template characters that describes the format of the returned haracter string.

TRANSFORM() converts exp to a formatted character string as defined by cSayPicture.

724.14.206   TYPE()

TYPE(cExp) => cType
cExp is a character expression whose type is to be determined. cExp can be a field, with or without the alias, a private or public variable, or an expression of any type.

TYPE() returns one of the following characters:

A Array
B Block
C Character
D Date
L Logical
M Memo
N Numeric
O Object
U NIL, local, or static
UE Error syntactical
UI Error indeterminate

TYPE() is a system function that returns the type of the specified expression. TYPE() is like VALTYPE() but uses the macro operator (&) to determine the type of the argument. VALTYPE(), by contrast, evaluates an expression and determines the data type of the return value.

724.14.207   UPDATED()

UPDATED() => lChange

UPDATED() returns true (.T.) if data in a GET is added or changed; otherwise, it returns false (.F.).

724.14.208   UPPER()

UPPER(cString) => cUpperString
cString is the character string to convert.

UPPER() returns a copy of cString with all alphabetical characters converted to uppercase. All other characters remain the same as in the original string.

724.14.209   USED()

USED() => lDbfOpen

USED() returns true (.T.) if there is a database file in USE in the current work area; otherwise, it returns false (.F.).

724.14.210   VAL()

Value

VAL(cNumber) => nNumber
cNumber is the character expression to convert.

VAL() is a character conversion function that converts a character string containing numeric digits to a numeric value. When VAL() is executed, it evaluates cNumber until a second decimal point, the first non-numeric character, or the end of the expression is encountered.

724.14.211   VALTYPE()

Value type

VALTYPE(exp) => cType
exp is an expression of any type.

VALTYPE() returns a single character representing the data type returned by exp. VALTYPE() returns one of the following characters:

A Array
B Block
C Character
D Date
L Logical
M Memo
N Numeric
O Object
U NIL

VALTYPE() is a system function that takes a single argument, evaluates it, and returns a one character string describing the data type of the return value.

724.14.212   YEAR()

YEAR(dDate) => nYear
dDate is the date value to convert.

YEAR() returns the year of the specified date value including the century digits as a four-digit numeric value. The value returned is not affected by the current DATE or CENTURY format. Specifying a null date (CTOD("")) returns zero.

724.15   nB functions

Some functions made into nB are available for macro use. Not all available functions are here documented.

724.15.1   ACCEPT()

ACCEPT( Field, [cMessage], [cHeader] ) => updatedField|NIL

It is a prompt function that shows cMessage asking to type something into Field. It returns the updated data or NIL if [Esc] was pressed. The string cHeader is showed centered at the top window.

724.15.2   ACHOICE()

ACHOICE(nTop, nLeft, nBottom, nRight,
     acMenuItems,
     [alSelectableItems],
     [nInitialItem],
     [lButtons | aButtons]) => nPosition
nTop, nLeft, nBottom, nRight are the window coordinates.
acMenuItems is an array of character strings to display as the menu items.
alSelectableItems is a parallel array of logical values (one element for each item in acMenuItems) that specify the selectable menu items. Elements can be logical values or character strings. If the element is a character string, it is evaluated as a macro expression which should evaluate to a logical data type. A value of false (.F.) means that the corresponding menu item is not available, and a value of true (.T.) means that it is available. By default, all menu items are available for selection.
nInitialItem is the position in the acMenuItems array of the item that will be highlighted when the menu is initially displayed.
lButtons if True means that default buttons will appear.
aButtons is an array of buttons.
aButtons[n][1] == N the nth button row position;
aButtons[n][2] == N the nth button column position;
aButtons[n][3] == C the nth button text;
aButtons[n][4] == B the nth button code block.

ACHOICE() returns the numeric position in the acMenuItems array of the menu item selected. If no choice is made, ACHOICE() returns zero.

724.15.3   ACHOICEWINDOW()

ACHOICEWINDOW( acMenuItems, [cDescription],
     nTop, nLeft, nBottom, nRight,
     [alSelectableItems],
     [nInitialItem] ) => nPosition
acMenuItems is an array of character strings to display as the menu items.
cDescription is a header to be shown at the top of window.
nTop, nLeft, nBottom, nRight are the window coordinates.
alSelectableItems is a parallel array of logical values (one element for each item in acMenuItems) that specify the selectable menu items. Elements can be logical values or character strings. If the element is a character string, it is evaluated as a macro expression which should evaluate to a logical data type. A value of false (.F.) means that the corresponding menu item is not available, and a value of true (.T.) means that it is available. By default, all menu items are available for selection.
nInitialItem is the position in the acMenuItems array of the item that will be highlighted when the menu is initially displayed.

ACHOICEWINDOW() calls ACHOICE() with a window border around the ACHOICE() screen area.

724.15.4   ALERTBOX()

ALERTBOX( cMessage, [aOptions] ) => nChoice
cMessage is the message text displayed, centered, in the alert box. If the message contains one or more semicolons, the text after the semicolons is centered on succeeding lines in the dialog box.
aOptions defines a list of up to 4 possible responses to the dialog box.

ALERTBOX() returns a numeric value indicating which option was chosen. If the [Esc] key is pressed, the value returned is zero. The ALERTBOX() function creates a simple modal dialog. The user can respond by moving a highlight bar and pressing the Return or SpaceBar keys, or by pressing the key corresponding to the first letter of the option. If aOptions is not supplied, a single "Ok" option is presented.

ALERTBOX() is similar to ALERT() but it accept mouse input.

724.15.5   ATB()

ATB( [nTop], [nLeft], [nBottom], [nRight],
     aArray, [nSubscript],
     [acColSayPic],
     [acColTopSep], [acColBodySep], [acColBotSep],
     [acColHead], [acColFoot],
     [abColValid],
     [abColMsg],
     [cColor], [abColColors],
     [lModify],
     [lButtons | aButtons] ) => NIL
nTop, nLeft, nBottom, nRight defines the screen area where browse have to take place.
aArray bidimensional array to be browsed.
nSubscript starting array position.
acColSayPic is the picture array.
acColTopSep is the top separation array: default is chr(194)+chr(196).
acColBodySep is the body separation array: default is chr(179).
acColBotSep is the bottom separation array: default is chr(193)+chr(196).
acColHead is the header array for every column.
acColFoot is the footer array for every column.
abColValid is the validation array that specify when a field is properly filled. The condition must be specified in code block format.
abColMsg is the message array that permits to show information at the bottom of browse area. The array must be composed with code blocks which result with a character string.
cColor is the color string: it may be longer than the usual 5 elements.
abColColors is the color code block array. The code block receive as parameter the value contained inside the field and must return an array containing two numbers: they correspond to the two color couple from cColor.
lModify indicates whether the browse can modify data.
lButtons if True, default buttons are displayed.
aButtons array of buttons.
aButtons[n][1] N the nth button row position;
aButtons[n][2] N the nth button column position;
aButtons[n][3] C the nth button text;
aButtons[n][4] B the nth button code block.

This function starts the browse of a bidimensional array. Only arrays containing monodimensional array containing the same kind of editable data are allowed. The function can handle a maximum of 61 columns.

724.15.6   BCOMPILE()

BCOMPILE( cString ) => bBlock

Compiles the string cString and returns the code block bBlock

724.15.7   BUTTON()

BUTTON( @aButtons,
     [nRow], [nCol], [cText], [cColor],
     [bAction] ) => NIL
aButtons the array of buttons to be increased with a new button array.
nRow and nCol is the row and column starting position for the button string.
cText is the text that make up the button.
cColor is the color string.
bAction is the code block associated to the button.

This function adds to aButtons a new button array. Please note that the button array added is compatible only with the READ() function and not the other function using array of buttons: the others do not have a color string.

724.15.8   COLORARRAY()

COLORARRAY( cColor ) => aColors
cColors a color string to be translated into a color array.

This function transform a color string into a color array. The array has as many elements as the colors contained inside cColor string.

724.15.9   COORDINATE()

COORDINATE( [@nTop, @nLeft], @nBottom, @nRight,
     [cHorizontal], [cVertical] ) => NIL
nTop, nLeft, nBottom and nRight are the starting position of a window that is to be differently aligned.
cHorozontal determinates the horizontal alignment:
"L" all left;
"l" middle left;
"C" center;
"c" center;
"R" all right;
"r" middle right.
cVertical determinate the vertical alignment:
"T" top;
"t" up;
"C" center;
"c" center;
"B" bottom;
"b" down.

This function helps with the windows alignment recalculating and modifying nTop, nLeft, nBottom and nRight in the way to obtain the desired alignment.

724.15.10   COPYFILE()

COPYFILE( cSourceFile, cTargetFile|cDevice ) => NIL
cSourceFile the source filename.
cTargetFile the target filename.
cDevice the target devicename.

This function copies the cSourceFile to cTargetFile or to cDevice.

724.15.11   DBAPP()

DBAPP( cFileName, [acFields],
     [bForCondition], [bWhileCondition],
     [nNextRecords],
     [nRecord],
     [lRest],
     [cDriver] ) => NIL
cFileName the filename containing data to append to the active alias.
acFields array of fieldnames indicating the fields that should be updated on the active alias (default is all).
bForCondition a code block containing the FOR condition to respect for the data append. Will be appended data that makes the evaluation of this code block True.
bWhileCondition a code block containing the WHILE condition to respect for the data append. Will be appended data as long as the evaluation of this code block is True: the first time it becomes False, the data appending is terminated.
nNextRecord if used, means that only the first nNextRecords will be appended.
nRecord if used, means that that only the record nRecord will be appended.
lRest this option is not available here also if the function saves a place for it.
cDriver is the optional driver name to use to open the cFileName file.

This function is used to append data to the active alias using data from the cFileName file, that in this case is a .DBF file.

724.15.12   DBCLOSE()

DBCLOSE() => NIL

It is a substitution function of DBCLOSEALL() to use inside "compiled" macros, as a true DBCLOSEALL() will close the macro file too.

724.15.13   DBCONTINUE()

DBCONTINUE() => NIL

This function resumes a pending DBLOCATE().

724.15.14   DBCOPY()

DBCOPY( cFileName, [acFields],
     [bForCondition], [bWhileCondition],
     [nNextRecords],
     [nRecord],
     [lRest],
     [cDriver] ) => NIL
cFileName the target filename for the data contained inside the active alias.
acFields array of fieldnames indicating the fields that should be used from the active alias (default is all).
bForCondition a code block containing the FOR condition to respect for the data copy. Will be copied the data that makes the evaluation of this code block True.
bWhileCondition a code block containing the WHILE condition to respect for the data copy. Will be copied data as long as the evaluation of this code block is True: the first time it becomes False, the data copying is terminated.
nNextRecord if used, means that only the first nNextRecords will be copied.
nRecord if used, means that that only the record nRecord will be copied.
lRest if used means that only the remaining records inside the active alias are copied.
cDriver is the optional driver name to use to open the cFileName file.

This function is used to copy data to cFileName form the active alias.

724.15.15   DBCOPYSTRUCT()

DBCOPYSTRUCT( cDatabase, [acFields] ) => NIL
cDatabase is a structure .DBF file that will be filled with structure information about the active alias.
acFields is an array of fieldnames that should be taken into consideration.

This function creates a structure .DBF file copying the structure of the active alias.

724.15.16   DBCOPYXSTRUCT()

DBCOPYXSTRUCT( cExtendedDatabase ) => NIL
cExtendedDatabase is a structure .DBF file that will be filled with structure information about the active alias, accepting extended structure informations.

This function creates a structure .DBF file copying the structure of the active alias. This function accept non-standard structure, that is, the extended structure available inside Clipper.

724.15.17   DBDELIM()

DBDELIM( lCopyTo, cFileName, [cDelimiter], [acFields],
     [bForCondition], [bWhileCondition],
     [nNextRecords], [nRecord], [lRest] ) => NIL
lCopyTo if True the function work copying data to cFileName from the active alias, if False the function work appending data from cFileName to the active alias.
cFileName the filename containing data to append to the active alias or to use as the target of the data copy from the active alias.
cDelimiter the delimiter string (or character) used to separate fields inside cFileName.
acFields array of fieldnames indicating the fields of the active alias that should be taken into consideration (default is all).
bForCondition a code block containing the FOR condition to respect. The operation will be made for all records that respect the condition.
bWhileCondition a code block containing the WHILE condition to respect. The first time it becomes False, the operation is terminated.
nNextRecord if used, means that only the first nNextRecords will be appended/copied.
nRecord if used, means that that only the record nRecord will be appended/copied.
lRest if used means that only the remaining records will be taken into consideration.

This function is used to append data to the active alias using data from the cFileName file or to copy data into cFileName using the active alias as the source. cFileName is a delimited ASCII file.

724.15.18   DBISTATUS()

DBISTATUS() => cDBInformations

This function returns the informations on the active alias in a text form.

724.15.19   DBISTRUCTURE()

DBISTRUCTURE() => cTextStructure | NIL

This function returns the structure information on the active alias in a text form.

724.15.20   DBJOIN()

DBJOIN( cAlias, cDatabase,
     [acFields], [bForCondition] ) => NIL
cAlias the name of the alias to use to merge with records from the active alias.
cDatabase the target .DBF filename.
acFields the array of fieldnames which represent the projection of fields form both Aliases into the new .DBF file. If not specified, all fields from the primary work area are included in the target .DBF file.

This function creates a new database file by merging selected records and fields form two work areas (Aliases) based on a general condition. It works by making a complete pass through the secondary work area cAlias for each record in the primary work area (the active alias), evaluating the condition for each record in the secondary work area. When bForCondition is evaluated True, a new record is created in the target database file cDatabase using the fields specified from both work areas inside acFields.

724.15.21   DBLABELFORM()

DBLABELFORM( cLabel, [lToPrinter], [cFile],
     [lNoConsole], [bForCondition], [bWhileCondition],
     [nNextRecords], [nRecord], [lRest], [lSample] )
     => NIL
cLabel is the name of the label file (.LBL) that contains the label format definition.
lToPrinter if True, the output is copied to printer (LPT1:).
cFile if present, it is the name of a ASCII file where the output is copied.
lNoConsole if True, the output is not sent to the console.
bForCondition a code block containing the FOR condition to respect for label print. Only the records contained inside the active alias that respect the condition will be used for labels.
bWhileCondition a code block containing the WHILE condition to respect for the label print. The first time that the condition is False, the label print terminates.
nNextRecord if used, means that only the first nNextRecords will be used.
nRecord if used, means that that only the record nRecord will be used.
lRest if used means that only the remaining records inside the active alias will be used.
lSample if True displays test labels as rows of asterisks.

This function prints labels to the console.

724.15.22   DBLIST()

DBLIST( [lToDisplay], abListColumns,
     [lAll],
     [bForCondition], [bWhileCondition],
     [nNextRecords], [nRecord], [lRest],
     [lToPrinter], [cFileName] )
lToDisplay if True the printout is sent to the console screen.
abListColumns is an array of columns expressions to list.
lAll if True prints all the records contained inside the active alias.
bForCondition a code block containing the FOR condition to respect. Only the records contained inside the active alias that respect the condition will be used for list.
bWhileCondition a code block containing the WHILE condition to respect. The first time that the condition is False, the list terminates.
nNextRecord if used, means that only the first nNextRecords will be used.
nRecord if used, means that that only the record nRecord will be used.
lRest if used means that only the remaining records inside the active alias will be used.
lToPrinter if True, the output is copied to printer (LPT1:).
cFileName if present, it is the name of a ASCII file where the output is copied.

This function prints a list of records to the console.

724.15.23   DBLOCATE()

DBLOCATE( [bForCondition], [bWhileCondition],
     [nNextRecords], [nRecord], [lRest] ) => NIL
bForCondition a code block containing the FOR condition to respect. Only the records contained inside the active alias that respect the condition will be taken into consideration.
bWhileCondition a code block containing the WHILE condition to respect. The first time that the condition is False, the locate terminates.
nNextRecord if used, means that only the first nNextRecords will be used.
nRecord if used, means that that only the record nRecord will be used.
lRest if used means that only the remaining records inside the active alias will be used.

This function searches sequentially for the first record matching the FOR and WHILE conditions. Once a DBLOCATE() has been issued you can resume the search from the current record pointer position with DBCONTINUE().

The WHILE condition and the scope (nNextRecord, nRecord and lRest) apply only to the initial DBLOCATE() and are not operational for any subsequent DBCONTINUE() call.

724.15.24   DBOLDCREATE()

DBOLDCREATE( cDatabase, cExtendedDatabase,
     [cDriver], [lNew], [cAlias] ) => NIL
cDatabase is the name of the new database file, with an optional drive and directory, specified as a character string. If specified without an extension (.dbf) is assumed.
cExtendedDatabase is a .DBF file containing the structure information of the file to create.
cDriver specifies the replaceable database driver (RDD) to use to process the current work area. cDriver is the name of the RDD specified as a character expression.
lNew if True the newly created .DBF file is opened using the next available work area making it the current work area (the active alias).
cAlias if lNew is set to True, this is the alias name to use to open the file.

This function is a old database function (superseded form DBCREATE() ) that creates a database file from the structure information contained inside a structure file.

724.15.25   DBPACK()

DBPACK() => NIL

This function eliminates definitively the active alias records previously signed for deletion. It works only if the active alias is opened in exclusive mode.

724.15.26   DBSDF()

DBSDF( lCopyTo, cFileName, [acFields],
     [bForCondition], [bWhileCondition],
     [nNextRecords], [nRecord], [lRest] ) => NIL
lCopyTo if True the function works copying data to cFileName from the active alias, if False the function work appending data from cFileName to the active alias.
cFileName the filename containing data to append to the active alias or to use as the target of the data copy from the active alias.
acFields array of fieldnames indicating the fields of the active alias that should be taken into consideration (default is all).
bForCondition a code block containing the FOR condition to respect. The operation will be made for all records that respect the condition.
bWhileCondition a code block containing the WHILE condition to respect. The first time it becomes False, the operation is terminated.
nNextRecord if used, means that only the first nNextRecords will be appended/copied.
nRercord if used, means that that only the record nRecord will be appended/copied.
lReset if used means that only the remaining records will be taken into consideration.

This function is used to append data to the active alias using data from the cFileName file or to copy data into cFileName using the active alias as the source. cFileName is a SDF ASCII file.

724.15.27   DBSORT()

DBSORT( cDatabase, [acFields],
     [bForCondition], [bWhileCondition],
     [nNextRecords], [nRecord], [lRest] ) => NIL
cDatabase the .DBF file to create.
acFields the array of fields to be used to create the new sorted cDatabase file.
bForCondition a code block containing the FOR condition to respect. Only the records contained inside the active alias that respect the condition will be taken into consideration.
bWhileCondition a code block containing the WHILE condition to respect. The first time that the condition is False, the sort terminates.
nNextRecord if used, means that only the first nNextRecords inside the active alias will be used.
nRecord if used, means that that only the record nRecord will be used.
lRest if used means that only the remaining records inside the active alias will be used.

Copy the active alias to a .DBF file in sorted order.

724.15.28   DBTOTAL()

DBTOTAL( cDatabase, bKey, [acFields],
     [bForCondition], [bWhileCondition],
     [nNextRecords], [nRecord], [lRest] ) => NIL
cDatabase the .DBF file to create that will contain the copy of summarised records.
bKey the code block key expression that should correspond to the key expression of the active index of the active alias.
acFields the array of fields to be used to create the new cDatabase file.
bForCondition a code block containing the FOR condition to respect. Only the records contained inside the active alias that respect the condition will be taken into consideration.
bWhileCondition a code block containing the WHILE condition to respect. The first time that the condition is False, the sort terminates.
nNextRecords if used, means that only the first nNextRecords inside the active alias will be used.
nRecord if used, means that that only the record nRecord will be used.
lRest if used means that only the remaining records inside the active alias will be used.

This function summarises records by key value to a .DBF file. It sequentially process the active alias scanning the specified scope of records. Records with the same key will be summarised inside the destination .DBF file. The value of numeric fields of records with the same key are added.

724.15.29   DBUPDATE()

DBUPDATE( cAlias, bKey, [lRandom], [bReplacement] )
cAlias is the alias containing data to be used to update the active alias.
bKey is a code block expression using information form the cAlias to obtain a key to refer to the active alias.
lRandom if True, allows record in the cAlias to be in any order. In this case, the active alias must be indexed with the same key as bKey.
bReplacement is the code block that will be executed when records matches: it should contains the criteria for data update.

This function updates the active alias with data from another .DBF file.

Example:

     dbUpdate( "INVOICE", {|| LAST}, .T.,;
          {|| FIELD->TOTAL1 := INVOICE->SUM1,;
          FIELD->TOTAL2 := INVOICE->SUM2 } )

724.15.30   DBZAP()

DBZAP() => NIL

This function erases immediately all the records contained inside the active alias.

724.15.31   DISPBOXCOLOR()

DISPBOXCOLOR( [nColorNumber], [cBaseColor] ) => cColor
nColorNumber may be 1 or 2 and are the two color used to create shadowed borders. 1 is usually used for the left and top line; 2 is used for the right and bottom line.
cBaseColor is the starting color string. The default is the actual color.

This function return a color string used for DISPBOXSHADOW() the function that create a shadowed border around a screen window.

724.15.32   DISPBOXSHADOW()

DISPBOXSHADOW( nTop, nLeft, nBottom, nRight,
     [cBoxString], [cColor1], [cColor2] ) => NIL
nTop, nLeft, nBottom and nRight are the screen coordinate where the box is to be displayed.
cBoxString is the box string containing the character to use to build the box. Default is a single line box.
cColor1 is the color string to use for the left and top side of the box.
cColor2 is the color string to use for the right and bottom side of the box.

This function draws a screen box like DISPBOX() but allowing the variation of colors around the border to simulate a sort of shadow.

724.15.33   DIR()

DIR( [cFileSpec], [lDrives], [lDirs], [lFiles],
     [lNoDirReturn], [nSortColumn] ) => cPathname
cFileSpec the filename or Pathname, also with wildcards, to be searched.
lDrives true (.T.) means: include drives letters.
lDirs true (.T.) means: include directory names.
lFiles true (.T.) means: include file names.
lNoRirReturn true (.T.) means: do not return the shown directory if [Esc] is used to exit.
nSortColumn the column number to use to sort the list. The columns are:
Name = 1,
Size = 2,
Date = 3,
Time = 4,
Attribute = 5.
It is not possible to sort for extention.

It is a window function useful to search a file or a directory. The complete pathname of the selected file is returned.

724.15.34   DOC()

DOC( [cTextFileName] ) => NIL
cTextFileName can contain the text file to open and edit; if empty, the editing of UNTITLED.TXT will start.

It is the nB Text editor useful for small text files (less then 64K) and contains a complete menu that can be started with [F10].

Attention: doc() should not be used inside macros.

724.15.35   DOTLINE()

DOTLINE() => NIL

This function is a "dot" command line useful for calculations resolution. The dot-line content may be passed to the keyboard buffer.

724.15.36   DTEMONTH()

Date of month

DTEMONTH( nMonth, cLanguage ) => cMonth
nMonth the month number.
cLanguage the language name.

This function translates the nMonth number into the month name translated using the cLanguage language.

724.15.37   DTEWEEK()

Date of week

DTEWEEK( nWeek, cLanguage ) => cWeek
nWeek is the week number (1 is Sunday, 7 is Saturday) to be translated into text.
cLanguage is the language name into which the week must be expressed. At the moment it works only for Italian, so cLanguage can only contain "ITALIANO".

This function translates the week number into the week name translated using the cLanguage language.

724.15.38   EX()

Execute

EX( cFileMacro ) => nExitCode

Executes the macro file cFileName. The extention must be specified.

cFileMacro may be the name of a "compiled" macro or a text macro file.

724.15.39   GET()

GET( @aGetList,
     [nTop], [nLeft],
     { |x| iif( pcount() > 0, Var := x, Var ) }
     [cGetPicture], [cColorString],
     [bPreExpression], [bValid] )
aGetList is the get list array that will be increased with this get().
nTop and nLeft define the starting position of this get object on the screen.
Var is the variable that is to be edited with this get. Var is in fact sent to the GET() function using a code block.
cGetPicture is the get picture to use for Var.
cColorString is the color string to use for the get.
bPreExpression is a code block that will be evaluated before the get object will became active. It must result True to obtain that the get object became active.
bValid is a code block that will be evaluated after the get object is edited. It must result True to obtain that the get object may become inactive.

Create screen editing masks.

724.15.40   GVADD()

Get validation add

GVADD( @cField, cAdd ) => .T.
cField the field to fill with more data.
cAdd is the string to be added to the content of cField.

This function is to be used inside GETs for pre/post validation, when a the content of a field should be added with more data.

cField is returned with the same length as before to avoid troubles with current and future GETs.

724.15.41   GVDEFAULT()

Get validation default

GVDEFAULT( @cField, cDefault ) => .T.
@cField the field to check and if empty correct with cDefault.
cDefault is the default value to be used to replace cField.

This function is to be used inside GETs for pre/post validation, when a field should have a default value.

cField is returned with the same length as before to avoid troubles with current and future GETs.

724.15.42   GVFILEDIR()

Get validation file directory

GVFILEDIR( @cWildName ) => .T.
cWildName is the file name taken from the current get to be used for search with DIR().

This function is to be used inside GETs for pre validation: the cWildName is a file name with wild cards that can be searched with the DIR() function after that a specific key is pressed.

cWildName is returned with the same length as before to avoid troubles with current and future GETs.

724.15.43   GVFILEEXIST()

GVFILEEXIST( @cNameToTest, [cExtention] ) => lSuccess
@cNameToTest is the file name taken from the current get to test for existence.
cExtention is the normal extention of the file.

This function is to be used inside GETs for post validation: the file name have to exist.

cNameToTest is returned with the same length as before to avoid troubles with current and future GETs.

724.15.44   GVFILEEXTENTION()

GVFILEEXTENTION( @cName, cExt ) => .T.
@cName the file name to be eventually corrected with file extention.
cExt the file extention to use as default.

This function is to use inside GETs for pre/post validation, when the content of a field should contain a file name that should be corrected adding a default extention if not given from the user.

724.15.45   GVSUBST()

GVSUBST( @cField, cSubst ) => .T.
@cField the field to be replaced with cSubst.
cSubst is the string to be used to replace the content of cField.

This function is to use inside GETs for pre/post validation, when the content of a field should be replaced with other data.

cField is returned with the same length as before to avoid troubles with current and future GETs.

724.15.46   HTF()

HTF( [nInitialRecord] ) => NIL
nInitialRecord is the record number where to start the Help Text File browse. Default is the actual record pointer.

This function browse a Help Text File that must be already opened and be the active alias.

724.15.47   ISFILE()

ISFILE( cName ) => lFileExists
cName is the file name (with or without path) to be checked for existence.

This function returns true (.T.) if the file cName exists. The difference between this function and the standard FILE() function is that ISFILE() checks for wildcards before. If cName contains wildcards, the result is false (.F.).

724.15.48   ISWILD()

ISWILD( cName ) => lIsWild
cName is the file name (with or without path) to be checked for wildcards presence.

This function returns true (.T.) if cName contains wildcards.

724.15.49   ISMEMVAR()

ISMEMVAR( cName ) => lIsMemvar
cName is the name of a possible memvar.

This function returns true (.T.) if the cName is a declared Memvar.

724.15.50   ISCONSOLEON()

ISCONSOLEON() => lConsoleIsOn

This function returns true (.T.) if the console will show the result of QOUT() and QQOUT().

724.15.51   ISPRINTERON()

ISPRINTERON() => lPrinterIsOn

This function returns true (.T.) if the default printer will report the the result of QOUT() and QQOUT().

The default printer is PRN: or LPT1:. If SET ALTERNATE TO is configured to send outputs to LPT2: or another printer, the function will report false (.F.).

724.15.52   KEYBOARD()

KEYBOARD( [cString] ) => NIL

This function stuff a string into the keyboard buffer.

724.15.53   LISTWINDOW()

LISTWINDOW( acMenuItem, [cDescription],
     [nTop], [nLeft], [nBottom], [nRight],
     [cColorTop], [cColorBody] ) => nPosition
acMenuItem is the character array containing the list of choices.
cDescription is the header to be shown at the top window.
nTop, nLeft, nBottom, nRight are the window coordinates.
cColorTop is the color to use for window header and footer.
cColorBody is the color to use for the window body that is the space where the text appears.

This function is an similar to achoice(), but it shows a header and footer, and it saves the screen, acting like a window.

724.15.54   MEMOWINDOW()

MEMOWINDOW( cVar, [cDescription], [nTop], [nLeft],
     [nBottom], [nRight], [cColorTop], [cColorBody],
     [lEditMode], [nLineLength], [nTabSize] ) => cVar
cVar is the character field (variable) to be edited.
cDescription is the header to be shown at the top window.
nTop, nLeft, nBottom, nRight are the window coordinates.
cColorTop is the color to use for window header and footer.
cColorBody is the color to use for the window body that is the space where the text appears.
lEditMode is equivalent to memoedit().
nLineLength is equivalent to memoedit().
nTabSize is equivalent to memoedit().

This function lets you easily edit a long character field (memo) defining automatically a simple window and providing a simple help.

724.15.55   MEMPUBLIC()

MEMPUBLIC( cMemvarName|acMemvarNames ) => NIL
cMemvarName is the name of the PUBLIC variable to create (max 10 characters).
acMemvarNames is an array of PUBLIC variable names to create (max 10 characters).

Creates a PUBLIC variables or a group of variables.

724.15.56   MEMRELEASE()

MEMRELEASE( cMemvarName|acMemvarNames ) => NIL
cMemvarName is the name of the PUBLIC variable to be released.
acMemvarNames is an array of PUBLIC variable names to be released.

This function releases a previously created PUBLIC variables or a group of variables.

724.15.57   MEMRESTORE()

MEMRESTORE( cMemFileName, [lAdditive] ) => NIL
cMemFileName the memory file (.MEM) to load from disk.
lAdditive if True causes memory variables loaded from the memory file to be added to the existing pool of memory variables. If False, the existing memory variables are automatically released.

Retrieve memory variables form a memory file (.MEM).

724.15.58   MEMSAVE()

MEMSAVE( cMemFileName, [cSkeleton], [lLike] ) => NIL
cMemFileName the memory file (.MEM) where public variables should be saved.
cSkeleton the skeleton mask for defining a group of variables. Wildcard characters may be used: _*_ and _?_.
lLike if True, the variables grouped with cSkeleton are saved, else only the other variables are saved.

Saves memory variables to a memory file (.MEM).

724.15.59   MENUPROMPT()

MENUPROMPT( @aoGet,
     [nRow], [nCol],
     [cPrompt], [bBlock] ) => NIL
aoGet is an array of get objects where a new get is added by MENUPROMPT(). These gets are read only.
nRow and nCol are the screen coordinates where the menu prompt will appear.
cPrompt is the menu prompt string.
bBlock is the code block to execute when the cursor is on the current menu prompt. It is usually a code block that shows a message somewhere on the screen.

This function should substitute the @...PROMPT command and handle the mouse.

724.15.60   MENUTO()

MENUTO( aoGet, nPos ) => nChoice
aoGet array of get objects.
nPos starting position to be edited.

Like MENU TO. It returns the selected menu item created with MENUPROMPT(). It supports the mouse.

724.15.61   MESSAGELINE()

MESSAGELINE( [cMessage], [cColor], [nPosTop], [nPosLeft] )
     => NIL
aMessage the message to be displayed.
cColor the color string.
nPosTop and nPosLeft the starting position where the string message would appear on the screen. Default values are respectively ROW() and COL().

MESSAGELINE() is a function that display a message on the screen on the selected position. If cMessage is NIL, the message is eliminated from screen restoring the previous screen content.

724.15.62   MOUSESCRSAVE()

MOUSESCRSAVE( [nTop], [nLeft], [nBottom], [nRight] )
     => cSavedScreen
nTop, nLeft, nBottom and nRight are the screen coordinates that will be to save the screen.

This function works line SAVESCREEN() but it hide the mouse cursor before a screen save is made.

724.15.63   MOUSESCRRESTORE()

MOUSESCRRESTORE( [nTop], [nLeft], [nBottom], [nRight],
     [cScreen] ) => cSavedScreen
nTop, nLeft, nBottom and nRight are the screen coordinates where the saved screen will be restored.
cScreen is the previously saved screen to restore.

This function works line RESTSCREEN() but it hide the mouse cursor before a screen restore is made.

724.15.64   PICCHRMAX()

PICCHRMAX( [nCol], [nMaxCol] ) => cPictureString
nCol is the starting position on the screen for the get field.
nMaxCol is the end position on the screen of the get field.

This function is useful when a character field is to be used on a get object. The generated picture will be the of the maximum possible extention, eventually with scroll.

724.15.65   QUIT()

QUIT() => NIL

Terminates program execution.

724.15.66   READ()

READ( aoGet, [nPos], [aButtons], [lReadOnly] )
     => lUpdated
aoGet is the array of get objects.
nPos is the starting position.
aButtons is the array of buttons.
lReadOnly if True, get fields cannot be modified; the default value is False.

This function is made to substitute the READMODAL() allowing the use of the mouse. The array aButtons is made with the help of the function BUTTON().

724.15.67   RF()

RF( cFRMName,
     [bForCondition], [bWhileCondition],
     [nNext], [nRecord], [lRest], [lPlain],
     [cbHeading], [lBeforeEject], [lSummary],
     [lDate], [acExtra] ) => NIL
cFRMName the form (.FRM) file to use to print the active alias.
bForCondition code block for the FOR condition.
bWhileCondition code block for the WHILE condition.
nNext see REPORT FORM.
nRecord see REPORT FORM
lRest see REPORT FORM
lPlain if true (.T.), force the print in a simple way.
cbHeading additional header in character or code block form. If a code block is sent, the final result must be a character string.
lBeforeEject if true (.T.), force a form feed before the print.
lSummary if true (.T.), force a summary print only.
lDate if false (.F.), force the print without date at the top of page.
acExtra a character array that may be used for translating standard printed report form words and to add vertical and horizontal separations. The default value of acExtra is:
acExtra[1] "Page No."
acExtra[2] "** Subtotal **"
acExtra[3] "* Subsubtotal *"
acExtra[4] "*** Total ***"
acExtra[5] " " vertical column separation
axExtra[6] "" horizontal separation: no separation.

This function does the same work of REPORT FORM or __ReportForm or dbReportForm, but it prints where qout() and qqout() print.

724.15.68   RPT()

RPT( cText ) => NIL

This function prints the text contained into cText using print commands. This function accepts other parameters here not described, as they are not to be used for macro purpose. The printing is made using QOUT() and QQOUT(), this way it is sensible to the "alternate" file definition.

724.15.69   RPTMANY()

RPTMANY( cText, [bWhileCondition], [bForCondition] )
     => NIL
cText is the text to be printed.
bWhileCondition is a code block for a WHILE condition to respect for the records to print.
bForCondition is a code block for a FOR condition to respect for the records to print.

This function prints the text contained into cText many times: one for every record contained into the active alias.

724.15.70   RPTTRANSLATE()

RPTTRANSLATE( cText ) => cTranslatedText

This function translates once cText replacing variables with memvars or Fields.

724.15.71   RUN()

RUN( cCommand ) => NIL

This function start execution of cCommand in a DOS session. It works only if there is enough available memory.

724.15.72   SAY()

SAY( nTop, nLeft, Expr,
     [cSayPicture], [cColorString] ) => NIL
nTop and nLeft define the starting position on the screen where the Expr should be displayed.
nLeft is an expression that will be solved and displayed.
cSayPicture is the picture to use to display Expr.
cColorString is the color string to use.

This function displays the result of Expr on the screen on the desired position.

724.15.73   SETCOLORSTANDARD()

SETCOLORSTANDARD( [nColor], [cColor|acColor] )
     => cPreviousColor|acPreviousColor
nColor is the color number to take into consideration:
0 All colors
1 Base
2 Menu
3 Head
4 Body (Say - Get)
5 Button (Mouse buttons)
6 Message
7 Alert
cColor the color string to be associated with nColor.
acColor it the color array

This function is a way to handle colors inside the application. The functions that display something use a default color depending on what they does. These colors may be changed with SETCOLORSTANDARD(), all together or only one.

724.15.74   SETFUNCTION()

SETFUNCTION( nFunctionKey, cString ) => NIL
nFunctionKey the number of the function key ( 1=F1, 12=F12) to be assigned.
cString the character string.

This function assigns a character string to a function key (obsolete).

724.15.75   SETMOUSE()

SETMOUSE( [lShow] )=> lPrevious
lShow True shows the mouse cursor, False hide the mouse cursor, NIL reports only the status.

This function is made to show, hide or report only the mouse cursor status.

724.15.76   SETOUTPUT()

SETOUTPUT( [cPeriperal|aPeripheral] )
     => aPrevious_Output_Peripherals
cPeripheral is the new output peripheral for qout() and qqout() functions.
aPeripheral are the new output peripherals configurations for qout() and qqout() functions.

nB is organised in the way to have only one output peripheral at the time. This function help to make order inside SET CONSOLE, SET PRINTER and SET ALTERNATE.

If cPeripheral contains:

"CON"

SET CONSOLE is set to ON,
SET PRINTER is set to OFF,
SET ALTERNATE is set to OFF;

"PRN"

SET CONSOLE is set to OFF,
SET PRINTER is set to ON,
SET ALTERNATE is set to OFF;

"LPT1"

same as "PRN";

otherwise

SET CONSOLE is set to OFF,
SET PRINTER is set to OFF,
SET ALTERNATE is set to ON,
SET ALTERNATE TO is set to cPeripheral.

aPeripheral is organised this way:

aPeripheral[1] = _SET_CONSOLE

aPeripheral[2] = _SET_PRINTER

aPeripheral[3] = _SET_ALTERNATE

aPeripheral[4] = _SET_ALTFILE

aPeripheral[5] = _SET_EXTRA

aPeripheral[6] = _SET_EXTRAFILE

This function is necessary because SET ALTERNATE alone is not enough to print on the screen when the peripheral name is "CON" or to print on the printer when the peripheral name is "PRN" or "LPT1". In fact, in the first case, ROW() and COL() will not be updated, in the second case, PROW() and PCOL() will not be updated.

This function returns an array organised in the same way as aPeripheral is, that shows the active output configuration.

724.15.77   SETRPTEJECT()

SETRPTEJECT( [lbEject] ) => lPreviousEjectMode

This function is used to set the eject mode after every page print for RPT(). If single sheet paper is used, then SETRPTEJECT(.T.) must be set; for continuous paper, SETRPTEJECT(.F.) is correct. The default value is .F..

lbEject logical or code block, is the eject mode to set. Default is no change, the starting value is .F.

724.15.78   SETRPTLINES()

SETRPTLINES() => nRemainingLines

This function is used to report the number of lines available before the completion of the page print for RPT().

724.15.79   SETVERB()

Set verbose

SETVERB( cSpecifier, [xNewSetting], [lOpenMode] )
     => xPreviousValueSet
cSpecifier a word that defines the kind of set is going to be considered.
xNewSetting is the new value to set up.
lOpenMode used only for some kind of set.

This function is analogue to SET() but it uses a character string (with cSpecifier) and not a number to select the set. This is made to make easier the work with macros.

cSpecifier may contain:

"EXACT"
"FIXED"
"DECIMALS"
"DATEFORMAT"
"EPOCH"
"PATH"
"DEFAULT"
"EXCLUSIVE"
"SOFTSEEK"
"UNIQUE"
"DELETED"
"CANCEL"
"TYPEAHEAD"
"COLOR"
"CURSOR"
"CONSOLE"
"ALTERNATE"
"ALTFILE"
"DEVICE"
"EXTRA"
"EXTRAFILE"
"PRINTER"
"PRINTFILE"
"MARGIN"
"BELL"
"CONFIRM"
"ESCAPE"
"INSERT"
"EXIT"
"INTENSITY"
"SCOREBOARD"
"DELIMITERS"
"DELIMCHARS"
"WRAP"
"MESSAGE"
"MCENTER"

724.15.80   SETVERB("EXACT") (obsolete)

SETVERB( "EXACT", [lExact] ) => lPrevious

If lExact is True, it forces exact comparison of character strings, including length. If it is False, character strings are compared until the left string length is exhausted; that is that "" (the null string) is equal to any other string.

Please note that the == operator is a comparison operator for exact match and using it, SETVERB("EXACT", .F.) will not work.

The starting value is True; the recommended value is True.

724.15.81   SETVERB("FIXED")

SETVERB( "FIXED", [lFixed] ) => lPrevious

If lFixed contains True, numeric values are displayed ever with a fixed number of decimal digits, depending on the value set by SETVERB("DECIMALS").

The starting value is False.

The recommended value is False: if you have to display a fixed number of decimal digits it is better to define a good display picture.

724.15.82   SETVERB("DECIMALS")

SETVERB( "DECIMALS", [nDecimals] ) => nPrevious

nDecimals is the number of digits to display after the decimal position. This set is enabled of disabled with SETVERB("FIXED").

The starting value is 8.

724.15.83   SETVERB("DATEFORMAT")

SETVERB( "DATEFORMAT", [cDateFormat] ) => cPrevious

cDateFormat is a character expression that specifies the date format.

The starting value is "dd/mm/yyyy".

Some date format examples:

AMERICAN "mm/dd/yyyy"
ANSI "yyyy.mm.dd"
BRITISH "dd/mm/yyyy"
FRENCH "dd/mm/yyyy"
GERMAN "dd.mm.yyyy"
ITALIAN "dd-mm-yyyy"
JAPAN "yyyy/mm/dd"
USA "mm-dd-yyyy"

724.15.84   SETVERB("EPOCH")

SETVERB( "EPOCH", [nYear] ) => nPrevious

nYear specifies the base year of 100-year period in which all dates containing only two year digits are assumed to fall.

The starting value is 1900.

724.15.85   SETVERB("PATH")

SETVERB( "PATH", [cPath] ) => cPrevious

cPath identifies the paths that nB uses when searching for a file not found in the current directory. The list of paths can be separated by commas or semicolons.

The starting value is "".

724.15.86   SETVERB("DEFAULT")

SETVERB( "DEFAULT", [cPath] ) => cPrevious

cPath identifies the default disk drive and directory.

The starting value is "".

724.15.87   SETVERB("EXCLUSIVE")

SETVERB( "EXCLUSIVE", [lExclusive] ) => lPrevious

If lPath is True, the default database (.DBF) file open is made in exclusive mode; in the other case, in shared mode.

The starting value is True.

724.15.88   SETVERB("SOFTSEEK")

SETVERB( "SOFTSEEK", [lSoftSeek] ) => lPrevious

If lSoftSeek is True, if a DBSEEK() index search fails, the record pointer is moved to the next record with a higher key. If it is False, in case of a DBSEEK() index search failure, the record pointer is moved at EOF().

The starting value is False.

724.15.89   SETVERB("UNIQUE") (obsolete)

SETVERB( "UNIQUE", [lUnique] ) => lPrevious

If lUnique is True, during creation or update of .DBF indexes, if two or more records are found with the same key, only the first record will be included inside the index.

If lUnique is False, duplicated record keys are allowed.

The starting value is False.

724.15.90   SETVERB("DELETED")

SETVERB( "DELETED", [lDeleted] ) => lPrevious

If lDeleted is True, record signed for deletion are not filtered, that is, these are still normally visible as they were not deleted. In the other case, they hare (in most cases) hidden to the user.

The starting value is False.

724.15.91   SETVERB("CANCEL")

SETVERB( "CANCEL", [lCancel] ) => lPrevious

If lCancel is True, enables [Alt c] and [Ctrl Break] as termination keys. In the other case, not.

The starting value is True.

724.15.92   SETVERB("TYPEAHEAD")

SETVERB( "TYPEAHEAD", [nTypeAhead] ) => nPrevious

nTypeAhead is the number of keystrokes the keyboard buffer can hold from a minimum of zero to a maximum of 4096.

The starting value is 15.

724.15.93   SETVERB("COLOR")

SETVERB( "COLOR", [cColorString] ) => cPrevious

nColorString defines the normal screen colors. There are five couple of colors, but only three are really operative:

standard This is the standard color used for screen output.
enhanced This is the color used for highlighted screen output.
border Normally unused.
background Normally unused.
unselected This is the color used for GET fields without focus.

The default color string is "BG+/B,N/W,N/N,N/N,W/N" that is:

standard bright Cyan on Blue
enhanced Black on White
border Black on Black
background Black on Black
unselected White on Black

The following table explains the use of letters inside the color string. Note that the plus sign (+) means high intensity, the star (*) means blink and that + and * can be allowed only to the first letter inside a couple.

Color Letter Monochrome
Black N, Space Black
Blue B Underline
Green G White
Cyan BG White
Red R White
Magenta RB White
Brown GR White
White W White
Gray N+ Black
Bright Blue B+ Bright Underline
Bright Green G+ Bright White
Bright Cyan BG+ Bright White
Bright Red R+ Bright White
Bright Magenta RB+ Bright White
Bright Brown GR+ Bright White
Bright White W+ Bright White
Black U Underline
Inverse Video I Inverse Video
Blank X Blank

724.15.94   SETVERB("CURSOR")

SETVERB( "CURSOR", [lCursor] ) => lPrevious

If lCursor is True, the cursor is showed, else it is hidden.

The starting value is True.

724.15.95   SETVERB("CONSOLE")

SETVERB( "CONSOLE", [lConsole] ) => lPrevious

If lConsole is True, the output of console commands is displayed on the screen, else it is not.

The starting value is True.

724.15.96   SETVERB("ALTERNATE")

SETVERB( "ALTERNATE", [lAlternate] ) => lPrevious

If lAlternate is True, the output of console commands is send also to a standard ASCII text file.

The starting value is False.

724.15.97   SETVERB("ALTFILE")

SETVERB( "ALTFILE", [cAlternateFilename], [lAdditive] )
     => cPrevious

If SETVERB("ALTERNATE") is True, the output of the console is send also to cAlternateFilename, a standard ASCII file.

If lAdditive is True, the output is appended to the ASCII file if it already exists, else it is erased first.

724.15.98   SETVERB("DEVICE")

SETVERB( "DEVICE", [cDevice] ) => cPrevious

cDevice is the name of the device where SAY() will display its output.

The starting value is "SCREEN", the alternative is "PRINTER".

The recommended value is "SCREEN".

724.15.99   SETVERB("EXTRA")

SETVERB( "EXTRA", [lExtra] ) => lPrevious

If lExtra is True, the output of console commands is send also to a standard ASCII text file.

The starting value is False.

724.15.100   SETVERB("EXTRAFILE")

SETVERB( "EXTRAFILE", [cExtraFilename], [lAdditive] )
     => cPrevious

If SETVERB("EXTRA") is True, the output of the console is send also to cExtraFilename, a standard ASCII file.

If lAdditive is True, the output is appended to the ASCII file if it already exists, else it is erased first.

724.15.101   SETVERB("PRINTER")

SETVERB( "PRINTER", [lPrinter] ) => lPrevious

If lPrinter is True, the output of console commands is also printed, else it is not.

The starting value is False.

724.15.102   SETVERB("PRINTFILE")

SETVERB( "PRINTFILE", [cPrintFileName] ) => cPrevious

cPrintFileName is the name of the printer peripheral name.

The starting value is "" (null string).

724.15.103   SETVERB("MARGIN")

SETVERB( "MARGIN", [nPageOffset] ) => nPrevious

nPageOffset is the positive number of column to be used as a left margin for all printer output.

The starting value is 0.

724.15.104   SETVERB("BELL")

SETVERB( "BELL", [lBell] ) => lPrevious

If lBell is True, the sound of the bell is used to get the attention of the user when some wrong actions are made.

The starting value is False.

724.15.105   SETVERB("CONFIRM")

SETVERB( "CONFIRM", [lConfirm] ) => lPrevious

If lConfirm is False, the GET is simply terminated typing over the end of the get field; in the other case (True), the GET is terminated only pressing an "exit key". The starting value is True.

724.15.106   SETVERB("ESCAPE")

SETVERB( "ESCAPE", [lEscape] ) => lPrevious

If lEscape is True, the [Esc] key is enabled to be a READ exit key, in the other case not.

The starting value is True.

The recommended value is True.

724.15.107   SETVERB("INSERT")

SETVERB( "INSERT", [lInsert] ) => lPrevious

If lInsert is True, the data editing is in INSERT mode, in the other case, it is in OVERWRITE mode.

The starting value is True.

724.15.108   SETVERB("EXIT")

SETVERB( "EXIT", [lExit] ) => lPrevious

If lExit is True, [Up] and [Down] key may be used as exit key when the cursor is (respectively) on the first or on the last GET field. In the other case not.

The starting value is False.

The recommended value is False.

724.15.109   SETVERB("INTENSITY")

SETVERB( "INTENSITY", [lIntensity] ) => lPrevious

If lIntensitiy is True, the display of standard and enhanced display colors are enabled. In the other case, only standard colors are enabled.

The starting value is True.

The recommended value is True.

724.15.110   SETVERB("SCOREBOARD")

SETVERB( "SCOREBOARD", [lScoreboard] ) => lPrevious

If lScoreboard is True, the display of messages from READ() and MEMOREAD() is allowed; in the order case not.

The starting value is False.

The recommended value is False: nB do not support scoreboard.

724.15.111   SETVERB("DELIMITERS")

SETVERB( "DELIMITERS", [lDelimiters] ) => lPrevious

If lDelimiters is True, GET variables appear on the screen delimited with the delimiter symbols. In the other case, GET variables are not delimited this way, but only with the use of different colors.

The starting value is False.

The recommended value is False: the use of delimiters creates one more trouble when designing a screen mask.

724.15.112   SETVERB("DELIMCHARS")

SETVERB( "DELIMCHARS", [cDelimterCharacters] ) => cPrevious

cDelimterCharacters are the delimiter characters used to delimit a GET field when SETVERB("DELIMITERS") is True.

The starting value is "::".

724.15.113   SETVERB("WRAP")

SETVERB( "WRAP", [lWrap] ) => lPrevious

If lWrap is True, the wrapping of the highlight in MENUs should be active, but this option is actually not active and all works as it is False.

The starting value is False.

724.15.114   SETVERB("MESSAGE")

SETVERB( "MESSAGE", [nMessageRow] ) => nPrevious

nMessageRow is the row number where the @..PROMPT message line should appear on the screen. This option is not supported.

The starting value is 0.

724.15.115   SETVERB("MCENTER")

SETVERB( "MCENTER", [lMessageCenter] ) => lPrevious

If lMessageCenter is True, the @..PROMPT message line should appear centered on the screen. This option is not supported.

The starting value is False.

724.15.116   STRADDEXTENTION()

STRADDEXTENTION( cName, cExt ) => cCompleteName
cName the file name (with or without path) that is probably without extention.
cExt the extention that must be added to cName if it has not one.

This function check cName for the presence of an extention. It it has not one, cExt will be added.

724.15.117   STRCUTEXTENTION()

STRCUTEXTENTION( cName ) => cName
cName the file name (with or without path) that is probably with extention.

This function check cName for the presence of an extention. It it has one, the extention is removed.

724.15.118   STRDRIVE()

STRDRIVE( cName ) => cDrive
cName the file name (with or without path) that contains the drive letter.

This function tries to extract the drive letter information from cName.

724.15.119   STREXTENTION()

STREXTENTION( cName ) => cExtention
cName the file name (with or without path) that contains an extention.

This function tries to extract the extention information from cName.

724.15.120   STRFILE()

STRFILE( cName ) => cFileName
cName the file name with or without path.

This function tries to extract the file name without path from cName.

724.15.121   STRFILEFIND()

STRFILEFIND( cName, cPath ) => cFileName
cName the file name or pathname containing the file name to search inside the cPath list.
cPath a list of paths separated with semicolon (just like Dos does), where cFile should be searched.

If your file is to be found on different possible positions, this function search the first place where the file is found and returns a valid pathname to that file.

724.15.122   STRGETLEN()

STRGETLEN( xExpr, cPicture ) => nFieldLength
xExpr a generic expression.
cPicture the picture string.

This function returns the length of field when using xExpr with cPicture.

724.15.123   STRLISTASARRAY()

STRLISTASARRAY( cList, [cDelimiter] ) => aList
cList a character string containing a list separated with cDelimiter.
cDelimiter the delimiter used to separate the elements contained inside the list.

This function transform a character string list into an array.

724.15.124   STROCCURS()

STROCCURS( cSearch, cTarget ) => nOccurrence
cSearch the search string to find inside cTarget.
cTarget the string to be searched for the presence of cSearch.

This function returns the number of occurrence that cSearch is contained inside cTarget.

724.15.125   STRPARENT()

STRPARENT( cName ) => cParentPath
cName the pathname.

This function tries to return a parent path from cName.

724.15.126   STRPATH()

STRPATH( cName ) => cPath
cName the pathname.

This function tries to extract the path from cName.

724.15.127   STRTEMPPATH()

STRTEMPPATH() => cTempPath

This function returns a temporary path searching for possible definitions inside the environmental variables.

724.15.128   STRXTOSTRING()

STRXTOSTRING( xVar, [cType] ) => cTrasformed_to_string
xVar is the data of any type to be converted into string.
cType is the type of the data contained inside xVar.

This function returns xVar transformed into a character string.

724.15.129   TB()

TB( [nTop], [nLeft], [nBottom], [nRight],
     [acCol], [acColSayPic],
     [acColTopSep], [acColBodySep], [acColBotSep],
     [acColHead], [acColFoot],
     [alColCalc],
     [abColValid],
     [abColMsg],
     [cColor], [abColColors],
     [nFreeze],
     [lModify],
     [lAppend],
     [lDelete],
     [lButtons | aButtons] ) => NIL

nTop, nLeft, nBottom, nRight defines the screen area where browse have to take place.

acCol is the columns array to be included into the browse.
acColSayPic is the picture array.
acColTopSep is the top separation array: default is chr(194)+chr(196).
acColBodySep is the body separation array: default is chr(179).
acColBotSep is the bottom separation array: default is chr(193)+chr(196).
acColHead is the header array for every column.
acColFoot is the footer array for every column.
alColCalc is the array that identify the calculated column (not editable). True (.T.) means calculated.
abColValid is the validation array that specify when a field is properly filled. The condition must be specified in code block format.
abColMsg is the message array that permits to show information at the bottom of browse area. The array must be composed with code blocks which result with a character string.
cColor is the color string: it may be longer than the usual 5 elements.
abColColors is the color code block array. The code block receive as parameter the value contained inside the field and must return an array containing two numbers: they correspond to the two color couple from cColor.
nFreeze indicates the number of columns to be left frozen on the left side.
lModify indicates whether the browse can modify data.
lDelete indicates whether the browse can delete and recall records.
lButtons if True, default buttons are displayed.
aButtons array of buttons.
aButtons[n][1] N the nth button row position;
aButtons[n][2] N the nth button column position;
aButtons[n][3] C the nth button text;
aButtons[n][4] B the nth button code block.

This function, called without parameters, starts the browse of the active alias, and if relations are established, the browse includes also related data.

Please note that due to an unresolved problem, the field names contained inside acCol should better contain also the alias (ALIAS->FIELD_NAME). See also the examples.

724.15.130   TEXT()

TEXT( cText ) => NIL

Shows the text contained into cText.

724.15.131   TGLINSERT()

TGLINSERT() => NIL

Toggle the global insert mode and the cursor shape.

724.15.132   TIMEX2N()

TIMEX2N( [nHH], [nMM], [nSS] ) => nTime
nHH is the number of hours.
nMM is the number of minutes.
nSS is the number of seconds.

This function calculate the "time number" that is a number representing days and/or portion of a day: 1 is 1 day or 24 hours, 0.5 is 12 hours, and so on.

724.15.133   TIMEN2H()

TIMEN2H( nTime ) => nHours
nTime is the "time number" that is a number representing days and/or portion of a day: 1 is 1 day or 24 hours, 0.5 is 12 hours, and so on.

This function returns the integer number of hours contained inside nTime.

724.15.134   TIMEN2M()

TIMEN2M( nTime ) => nMinutes
nTime is the "time number" that is a number representing days and/or portion of a day: 1 is 1 day or 24 hours, 0.5 is 12 hours, and so on.

This function returns the integer number of minutes contained inside nTime after subtracting the hours.

724.15.135   TIMEN2S()

TIMEN2S( nTime ) => nSeconds
nTime is the "time number" that is a number representing days and/or portion of a day: 1 is 1 day or 24 hours, 0.5 is 12 hours, and so on.

This function returns the number of seconds (with eventual decimals) contained inside nTime after subtracting the hours and the minutes.

724.15.136   TRUESETKEY()

TRUESETLEY( nInkeyCode, bAction ) => .T.

This function is equivalent to SETKEY() but it returns always .T.

724.15.137   WAITFILEEVAL()

WAITFILEEVAL( lClose ) => .T.

Shows a wait bar calling WAITPROGRESS() for operation on records of a database.

If there is no index active, it is equivalent to WAITPROGRES(RECNO()/LASTREC()).

if an index is active, this cannot work, so an increment for each call is made: WAITPROGRES((nIncrement++)/LASTREC()).

This function must be closed calling it with the lClose parameter to true (.T.). This way, internal counters are closed and WAITPROGRESS() is closed too.

724.15.138   WAITFOR()

WAITFOR( [cMessage] ) => NIL

Shows cMessage until it is called again. The wait window is closed when called without parameter or with NIL.

724.15.139   WAITPROGRESS()

WAITPROGRESS( [nPercent] ) => .T.

Shows a wait bar on the screen top depending on the value contained into nPercent. nPercent starts form 0 and ends to 1 (100%). If a value of one or more, or NIL is passed, the wait window is closed.

724.16   Normal command substitution

Clipper works only with functions and commands that are converted into function using the STD.CH. Here are described some command replacement that can be used also with nB macros.

?
? [exp_list]
qout([exp_list])
?? [exp_list]
qqout([exp_list])
@BOX
@ nTop, nLeft, nBottom, nRight BOX cnBoxString [COLOR cColorString]
dispbox(nTop, nLeft, nBottom, nRight, [cnBoxString], [cColorString])
@TO
@ nTop, nLeft TO nBottom, nRight DOUBLE [COLOR cColorString]
dispbox(nTop, nLeft, nBottom, nRight, 2 [,cColorString])
@ nTop, nLeft TO nBottom, nRight [COLOR cColorString]
dispbox(nTop, nLeft, nBottom, nRight, 1 [,cColorString])
@ nTop, nLeft CLEAR [TO nBottom, nRight]
scroll([nTop], [nLeft], [nBottom, nRight])
setpos(nRow, nCol)
@GET
@ nTop, nLeft GET Var [PICTURE cGetPicture] [COLOR cColorString] [WHEN lPreExpression] \
  \[VALID lPostExpression]
setpos(nTop, nLeft)
aadd( GetList, _GET_( Var, "Var", cGetPicture, [{|| lPostExpression}],\
  \[{|| lPreExpression}] ):display() ) atail(GetList):colorDisp(cColorString)
@SAY
@ nTop, nLeft SAY exp [COLOR cColorString]
devpos(nTop, nLeft)
devout(exp [, cColorString])
@ nTop, nLeft SAY exp PICTURE cSayPicture [COLOR cColorString]
devpos(nTop, nLeft)
devoutpic(exp, cSayPicture, [cColorString])
APPEND
APPEND BLANK
dbappend()
CLEAR
CLEAR
Scroll()
SetPos(0,0)
ReadKill(.T.)
GetList := {}
CLEAR GETS
ReadKill(.T.)
GetList := {}
CLEAR SCREEN | CLS
Scroll()
SetPos(0,0)
CLOSE
CLOSE
dbCloseArea()
CLOSE idAlias
idAlias->( dbCloseArea() )
CLOSE ALTERNATE
Set(19, "")
CLOSE DATABASES
dbCloseAll()
CLOSE INDEXES
dbClearIndex()
COMMIT
COMMIT
dbCommitAll()
COUNT
COUNT TO idVar [FOR lForCondition] [WHILE lWhileCondition] [NEXT nNextRecords]\
  \[RECORD nRecord] [REST] [ALL]
dbeval( {||idVar:=idVar+1}, {||lForCondition}, {||lWhileCondition},\
  \nNextRecords, nRecord, lRest )
DEFAULT
DEFAULT xVar TO xDefaultValue
DEFAULT( @xVar, xDefaultValue ) => xVar
DELETE
DELETE
dbDelete()
DELETE [FOR lForCondition] [WHILE lWhileCondition] [NEXT nNextRecords]\
  \[RECORD nRecord] [REST] [ALL]
dbeval( {||dbDelete()}, {||lForCondition}, {||lWhileCondition},\
  \nNextRecords, nRecord, lRest )
DELETE FILE xcFile
ferase( cFile )
EJECT
EJECT
qqout( chr(13) )
ERASE
ERASE xcFile
ferase( cFile )
FIND
FIND xcSearchString
dbSeek( cSearchString )
GO
GO[TO] nRecord
dbgoto(nRecord)
GO[TO] BOTTOM
dbGoBottom()
GO[TO] TOP
dbgotop()
INDEX ON
INDEX ON expKey TO xcIndexName [UNIQUE] [FOR lForCondition]\
  \[WHILE lWhileCondition] [[EVAL lEvalCondition] [EVERY nRecords]] [ASCENDING|DESCENDING]
ordCondSet( [cForCondition], [bForCondition], , [bWhileCondition],\
  \[bEvalCondition], [nRecords], RECNO(), , , , lDescending )
ordCreate( cIndexName, , cExpKey, bExpKey, lUnique )
READ
READ
ReadModal(GetList)
GetList := {}
READ SAVE
ReadModal(GetList)
RECALL
RECALL
dbRecall()
RECALL [FOR lForCondition] [WHILE lWhileCondition] [NEXT nNextRecords]\
  \[RECORD nRecord] [REST] [ALL]
dbeval( {||dbRecall()}, {||lForCondition}, {||lWhileCondition},\
  \nNextRecords, nRecord, lRest )
REINDEX
REINDEX [EVAL lEvalCondition] [EVERY nRecords]
ordCondSet(, , , , [bEvalCondition], [nRecords], , , , , , , )
ordListRebuild()
RENAME
RENAME xcOldFile TO xcNewFile
frename( cOldFile, cNewFile )
REPLACE
REPLACE idField1 WITH exp1 [, idField2 WITH exp2...]\
  \[FOR lForCondition] [WHILE lWhileCondition] [NEXT nNextRecords]\
  \[RECORD nRecord] [REST] [ALL]
dbeval( {|| idField1 := exp1 [, idField2 := exp2...]},\
  \{||lForCondition}, {||lWhileCondition}, nNextRecords,\
  \nRecord, lRest )
REPLACE idField1 WITH exp1
idField1 := exp1
RESTORE
RESTORE SCREEN FROM cScreen
restscreen( 0, 0, Maxrow(), Maxcol(), cScreen )
SAVE
SAVE SCREEN TO cScreen
cScreen := savescreen( 0, 0, maxrow(), maxcol() )
SEEK
SEEK expSearch [SOFTSEEK]
dbSeek( expSearch [, lSoftSeek] )
SELECT
SELECT xnWorkArea | idAlias
dbSelectArea( nWorkArea | cIdAlias )
SET
SET ALTERNATE TO xcFile [ADDITIVE]
Set( 19, cFile, lAdditive )
SET ALTERNATE ON | OFF | xlToggle
Set( 18, "ON" | "OFF" | lToggle )
SET BELL ON | OFF | xlToggle
Set( 26, "ON" | "OFF" | lToggle )
SET COLOR | COLOUR TO (cColorString)
SetColor( cColorString )
SET CONFIRM ON | OFF | xlToggle
Set( 27, "ON" | "OFF" | lToggle )
SET CONSOLE ON | OFF | xlToggle
Set( 17, "ON" | "OFF" | lToggle )
SET CURSOR ON | OFF | xlToggle
SetCursor( 1 | 0 | iif( lToggle, 1, 0 ) )
SET DATE FORMAT [TO] cDateFormat
Set( 4, cDateFormat )
SET DECIMALS TO
Set( 3, 0 )
SET DECIMALS TO nDecimals
Set( 3, nDecimals )
SET DEFAULT TO
Set( 7, "" )
SET DEFAULT TO xcPathspec
Set( 7, cPathspec )
SET DELETED ON | OFF | xlToggle
Set( 11, "ON" | "OFF" | lToggle )    
SET DELIMITERS ON | OFF | xlToggle
Set( 33, "ON" | "OFF" | lToggle )
SET DELIMITERS TO [DEFAULT]
Set( 34, "::" )
SET DELIMITERS TO cDelimiters
Set( 34, cDelimiters )
SET DEVICE TO SCREEN | PRINTER
Set( 20, "SCREEN" | "PRINTER" )
SET EPOCH TO nYear
Set( 5, nYear )
SET ESCAPE ON | OFF | xlToggle
Set( 28, "ON" | "OFF" | lToggle )
SET EXACT ON | OFF | xlToggle
Set( 1, "ON" | "OFF" | lToggle )
SET EXCLUSIVE ON | OFF | xlToggle
Set( 8, "ON" | "OFF" | lToggle )
SET FILTER TO
dbclearfilter()
SET FILTER TO lCondition
dbsetfilter( bCondition, cCondition )
SET FIXED ON | OFF | xlToggle
Set( 2, "ON" | "OFF" | lToggle )
SET INDEX TO [xcIndex [, xcIndex1... ] ]
ordListClear()
ordListAdd( cIndex )
ordListAdd( cIndex1 )
...
SET INTENSITY ON | OFF | xlToggle
Set( 31, "ON" | "OFF" | lToggle )
SET KEY nInkeyCode [TO]
SetKey( nInkeyCode, NIL )
SET KEY nInkeyCode TO [idProcedure]
SetKey( nInkeyCode, { |p, l, v| idProcedure(p, l, v)} )
SET MARGIN TO
Set( 25, 0 )
SET MARGIN TO [nPageOffset]
Set( 25, nPageOffset )
SET MESSAGE TO
Set( 36, 0 )
Set( 37, .F. )
SET MESSAGE TO [nRow [CENTER | CENTRE]]
Set( 36, nRow )
Set( 37, lCenter )
SET ORDER TO [nIndex]
ordSetFocus( nIndex )
SET PATH TO
Set( 6, "" )
SET PATH TO [xcPathspec [, cPathspec1... ] ]
Set( 6, cPathspec [, cPathspec1... ] )
SET PRINTER ON | OFF | xlToggle
Set( 23, "ON" | "OFF" | lToggle )
SET PRINTER TO
Set( 24, "" )
SET PRINTER TO [xcDevice|xcFile [ADDITIVE]]
Set( 24, cDevice|cFile, lAdditive )
SET RELATION TO
dbclearrelation()
SET RELATION TO [expKey1 INTO xcAlias1]
     [, [TO] expKey2 INTO xcAlias2...]
     [ADDITIVE]
if !lAdditive
     dbClearRel()
end
dbSetRelation( cAlias1, {|| expKey1}, ["expKey1"] )
dbSetRelation( cAlias2, {|| expKey2}, ["expKey1"] )
SET SCOREBOARD ON | OFF | xlToggle
Set( 32, "ON" | "OFF" | lToggle )
SET SOFTSEEK ON | OFF | xlToggle
Set( 9, "ON" | "OFF" | lToggle )
SET TYPEAHEAD TO nKeyboardSise
Set( 14, nKeyboardSise )
SET UNIQUE ON | OFF | xlToggle
Set( 10, "ON" | "OFF" | lToggle )
SET WRAP ON | OFF | xlToggle
Set( 35, "ON" | "OFF" | lToggle )
SKIP
SKIP [nRecords] [ALIAS idAlias|nWorkArea]
[idAlias|nWorkArea -> ]( dbSkip([nRecords]) )
STORE
STORE value TO variable
variable := value
SUM
SUM nExp1 [, nExp2...] TO idVar1 [, idVar2...] [FOR lForCondition]\
  \[WHILE lWhileCondition] [NEXT nNextRecords] [RECORD nRecord] [REST] [ALL]
dbeval( {||idVar1:=idVar1+nExp1 [, idVar2:=idVar2+nExp2...] },\
  \{||lForCondition}, {||lWhileCondition}, nNextRecords, nRecord, lRest )
UNLOCK
UNLOCK
dbUnlock()
UNLOCK ALL
dbUnlockAll()
USE
USE
dbclosearea()
USE [xcDatabase]\
  \[INDEX xcIndex1 [, xcIndex2...] [ALIAS xcAlias] [EXCLUSIVE|SHARED] \
  \[NEW] [READONLY] [VIA cDriver]]
dbUseArea( [lNewArea], [cDriver], cDatabase, [cAlias], [lShared], [lReadOnly] )
[dbSetIndex( cIndex1 )]
[dbSetIndex( cIndex2 )]
...

724.17   nB command substitution functions

Inside nB there are many functions made only in substitution to other Clipper commands.

GET
@ nTop, nLeft GET Var
     [PICTURE cGetPicture]
     [COLOR cColorString]
     [WHEN lPreExpression]
     [VALID lPostExpression]
Get( @aGetList,
     [nTop], [nLeft],
     { |x| iif( pcount() > 0, Var := x, Var ) }
     [cGetPicture], [cColorString],
     [bPreExpression], [bValid] )
aGetList is the get list array that will be increased with this get().
SAY
@ nTop, nLeft SAY exp
     PICTURE cSayPicture
     [COLOR cColorString]
Say( nTop, nLeft, cVar, [cSayPicture], [cColorString] )
APPEND FROM
APPEND FROM xcFile
     [FIELDS idField_list]
     [scope]
     [WHILE lCondition]
     [FOR lCondition]
     [VIA xcDriver]
dbApp( cFileName, [acFields],
     [bForCondition], [bWhileCondition],
     [nNextRecords],
     [nRecord],
     [lRest],
     [cDriver] )
APPEND FROM xcFile
     [FIELDS idField_list]
     [scope]
     [WHILE lCondition]
     [FOR lCondition]
     DELIMITED xcDelimiter
dbDelim( .f., cFileName, [cDelimiter], [acFields],
     [bForCondition], [bWhileCondition],
     [nNextRecords], [nRecord], [lRest] )
APPEND FROM xcFile
     [FIELDS idField_list]
     [scope]
     [WHILE lCondition]
     [FOR lCondition]
     SDF
dbSDF( .f., cFileName, [acFields],
     [bForCondition], [bWhileCondition],
     [nNextRecords], [nRecord], [lRest] )
CONTINUE
CONTINUE
dbContinue()
COPY
COPY FILE xcSourceFile TO xcTargetFile|xcDevice
CopyFile( cSourceFile, cTargetFile|cDevice )
COPY STRUCTURE [FIELDS idField_list]
     TO xcDatabase
dbCopyStruct( cDatabase, [acFields] )
COPY STRUCTURE EXTENDED
     TO xcExtendedDatabase
dbCopyXStruct( cExtendedDatabase )
COPY TO xcFile
     [FIELDS idField_list]
     [scope]
     [WHILE lCondition]
     [FOR lCondition]
     [VIA xcDriver]
dbCopy( cFileName, [acFields],
     [bForCondition], [bWhileCondition],
     [nNextRecords],
     [nRecord],
     [lRest],
     [cDriver] )
COPY TO xcFile
     [FIELDS idField_list]
     [scope]
     [WHILE lCondition]
     [FOR lCondition]
     DELIMITED xcDelimiter
dbDelim( .t., cFileName, [cDelimiter], [acFields],
     [bForCondition], [bWhileCondition],
     [nNextRecords], [nRecord], [lRest] )
COPY TO xcFile
     [FIELDS idField_list]
     [scope]
     [WHILE lCondition]
     [FOR lCondition]
     SDF
dbSDF( .t., cFileName, [acFields],
     [bForCondition], [bWhileCondition],
     [nNextRecords], [nRecord], [lRest] )
CREATE
CREATE xcDatabase
     FROM xcExtendedDatabase
     [NEW]
     [ALIAS cAlias]
     [VIA cDriver]
dbOldCreate( cDatabase, cExtendedDatabase,
     [cDriver], [lNew], [cAlias] )
JOIN
JOIN WITH xcAlias TO xcDatabase
     [FOR lCondition] [FIELDS idField_list]
dbJoin( cAlias, cDatabase,
     [acFields], [bForCondition] )
KEYBOARD
KEYBOARD cString
Keyboard( [cString] ) => NIL
LABEL FORM
LABEL FORM xcLabel
     [TO PRINTER]
     [TO FILE xcFile]
     [NOCONSOLE]
     [scope]
     [WHILE lCondition]
     [FOR lCondition]
     [SAMPLE]
dbLabelForm( cLabel, [lToPrinter], [cFile],
     [lNoConsole], [bForCondition], [bWhileCondition],
     [nNextRecords], [nRecord], [lRest], [lSample] )
LIST
LIST exp_list
     [TO PRINTER]
     [TO FILE xcFile]
     [scope]
     [WHILE lCondition]
     [FOR lCondition]
     [OFF]
dbList( [lToDisplay], abListColumns,
     [lAll],
     [bForCondition], [bWhileCondition],
     [nNextRecords], [nRecord], [lRest],
     [lToPrinter], [cFileName] )
LOCATE
LOCATE [scope] FOR lCondition
     [WHILE lCondition]
dbLocate( [bForCondition], [bWhileCondition],
     [nNextRecords], [nRecord], [lRest] )
PACK
PACK
dbPack()
PUBLIC
PUBLIC idMemvar
MemPublic( cMemvarName|acMemvarNames )
QUIT
QUIT
Quit()
RELEASE
RELEASE idMemvar
MemRelease( cMemvarName|acMemvarNames )
REPORT FORM
REPORT FORM xcReport
     [TO PRINTER]
     [TO FILE xcFile]
     [NOCONSOLE]
     [scope]
     [WHILE lCondition]
     [FOR lCondition]
     [PLAIN | HEADING cHeading]
     [NOEJECT] [SUMMARY]
RF( cForm,
     [bForCondition], [bWhileCondition],
     [nNext], [nRecord], [lRest], [lPlain],
     [cbHeading], [lBeforeEject], [lSummary],
     [lDate], [acExtra] ) => NIL
RESTORE FROM
RESTORE FROM xcMemFile [ADDITIVE]
MemRestore( cMemFileName, [lAdditive] )
RUN
RUN xcCommandLine
Run( cCommand )
SAVE TO
SAVE TO xcMemFile
     [ALL [LIKE|EXCEPT skeleton]]
MemSave( cMemFileName, [cSkeleton], [lLike] )
SET FUNCTION
SET FUNCTION nFunctionKey TO cString
SetFunction( nFunctionKey, cString )
SORT
SORT TO xcDatabase
     ON idField1 [/[A|D][C]]
     [, idField2 [/[A|D][C]] ...]
     [scope]
     [WHILE lCondition]
     [FOR lCondition]
dbSort( cDatabase, [acFields],
     [bForCondition], [bWhileCondition],
     [nNextRecords], [nRecord], [lRest] )
TOTAL
TOTAL ON expKey
     [FIELDS idField_list] TO xcDatabase
     [scope]
     [WHILE lCondition]
     [FOR lCondition]
dbTotal( cDatabase, bKey, [acFields,
     [bForCondition], [bWhileCondition],
     [nNextRecords], [nRecord]], [lRest] )
UPDATE
UPDATE FROM xcAlias
     ON expKey [RANDOM]
     REPLACE idField1 WITH exp
     [, idField2 WITH exp ...]
dbUpdate( cAlias, bKey, [lRandom], [bReplacement] )

Example:

     dbUpdate( "INVOICE", {|| LAST}, .T.,;
          {|| FIELD->TOTAL1 := INVOICE->SUM1,;
          FIELD->TOTAL2 := INVOICE->SUM2 } )
ZAP
ZAP
dbZap()

724.18   RPT: the nB print function

The function RPT() helps to print ASCII file containing Memvars, Fields and print commands. RPT() is accessible from the DOC() menu.

724.18.1   Memvars and fields

As usual with standard word processors, variables are written delimited with "<" (Alt+174) and ">" (Alt+175).

Inside these delimiters can find place character Memvars, character Fields and functions giving a character result.

The RPT() function generates a public variable n_Lines that contains the available lines inside the actual sheet. Every time a line is written, this value is reduced, until a new page is reached and then it will start again from the maximum value. It is useful to read this variable to determinate if there is enough space or it is better to change page.

724.18.2   Commands

The function RPT() recognise some print commands. These commands starts with the asterisk (*) symbol. This means that "*" is a print command prefix.

It follows the command syntax.

*COMMAND
*COMMAND
     cStatement
     cStatement
     ...
*END

The lines contained inside *COMMAND - *END are executed with the nB macro interpreter.

*DBSKIP
*DBSKIP [nSkip]

It Executes a dbskip() on the active alias.

*FOOT
*FOOT
     cFooter
     cFooter
     ...
*END

The lines contained inside *FOOT - *END are printed each time at the bottom of pages.

*HEAD
*HEAD
     cHeader
     cHeader
     ...
*END

The lines contained inside *HEAD - *END are printed each time at the top of pages.

*IF
*IF lCondition
    ...
    ...
*END

If the condition lCondition is true, the lines contained inside *IF - *END are printed.

*INSERT
*INSERT cFileName

Includes the text contained into the file cFileName.

*LEFT
*LEFT nLeftBorder

The nLeftBorder is the number of column to be left blank as a left border.

*LPP
*LPP nLinesPerPage

It determinates the page length expressed in lines. After printing the nLinesPerPageth line, a form feed is sent.

*NEED
*NEED nLinesNeeded

If the available lines are less then nLinesNeeded, the follwing text will be printed on the next page.

*PA
*PA

Jumps to a new page.

*REM
*REM | *COMMENT [comment_line]

It adds a comment that will not be printed.

*WHILE
*WHILE lCondition
    ...
    ...
*END

The lines contained inside *WHILE - *END are printed as long as lCondition is true.

724.18.3   Examples

It follows some example of text to be printed with the RPT() function. Example's lines are numbered. Line numbers must not be part of a real RPT text files.

PAGE DEFINITION

Margins are defined with *HEAD, *FOOT and *LEFT commands. In the following example is defined:

     Top            2 lines;

     Bottom         2 lines;

     Left           10 characters.

The right margin is not defined as it depends on the lines length that will be printed.

The only considered page dimension is the height, *LPP (lines per page):

     Page height    66 lines.

Here starts the example:

001  *lpp 66
002  *head
003
004
005  *end
006  *foot
007
008
009  *end
010  *left 10
011  ... text text text
012  ... test text text
...

At line 001 is defined the page height in lines. At line 002 is defined the header; it contains two empty lines (003 and 004) which will be printed at the top of every page. At line 006 starts the footer definition that contains two empty lines (007 and 008) that will be printed at the end of every page. At line 010 is defined the space on the left that will be added to every line printed. From line 011 starts the normal text.

HEADER AND FOOTER

The commands *HEAD and *FOOT are used to define the top and bottom border if they contains empty lines, it these lines are not empty, they became real head and foot.

The dimensions are as it follows:

     Top            6 lines (should be one inch);

     Bottom         6 lines;

     Left           10 characters (should be an inch).

     Page height    66 lines (should be 11 inch).

At position 0.5 in (after 3 lines) a one line header appears.

001  *lpp 66
002  *head
003
004
005
006  ------------------- MYFILE.TXT -------------------
007
008
009  *end
010  *foot
011
012
013
014
015
016
017  *end
018  *left 10
019  ... text text text
020  ... test text text
...

At line 006 (the fourth header line) a text appears. It will be printed on every page at the absolute fourth page line.

CODE INSERTION

Pieces of code can be inserted inside *COMMAND - *END. It can be useful to make complicated reports.

The following example declares a public variable used to number pages.

001  *command
002  mempublic("PageNo")
003  PageNo := 0
004  *end
005  *lpp 66
006  *head
007  *command
008  PageNo := PageNo +1
009  *end
010
011
012  *end
013  *foot
014
015                                Page <PageNo>
016
017  *end
018  *left 10
019  ... text text text
020  ... test text text
...

At line 001 starts a *COMMAND definition: lines 002 and 003 will be interpreted from the function EX(), the nB interpreter. These lines define a public variable and initialize it at 0. This variable will be use to count pages.

At line 007, inside the header (nested), start another *COMMAND definition that contains an increment for the "PageNo" variable. As the header is read and "executed" for every new page, and that before the footer, the variable "PageNo" will contain the right page number.

At line 015, inside the footer, a reference to "PageNo" appears. Here will be printed the page number.

A more complicated example can be found in ADDRESS.TXT the RPT text file used for the ADDRESS.& macro examples.

724.19   How can I...

nB is a little bit complicated as it may do many things. Here are some examples.

Create a UDF function

UDF means User Defined Function. Inside nB there isn't the possibility to create functions, but there is an alternative: code blocks.

Create a big code block

A code block cannot be longer than 254 characters, as any other instruction inside nB.

So, there is no way to make a bigger code block, but a code block can call another code block, and so on. For example:

     mempublic( { "first", "second", "third" } )
     first := {|| eval( second, "hello" ) }
     second := {|x| eval( third, x ) }
     third := {|x| alertbox( x ) }
     eval( first )

This stupid example simply will show the alert box containing the word "hello".

724.20   The source files

The nB source is composed of four files:

NB.PRG The main source file containing essentially the nB menu.
REQUEST.PRG Contains a link to all Clipper standard functions.
STANDARD.PRG Contains the most important standard functions.
EXTRA.PRG Contains some extra function not absolutely necessary during macro execution.

The file REQUEST.PRG source file generates some warnings because not all functions listed there are directly called form nB. Don't worry about that warning message.

Different .RMK (rmake) files are included to compile nB differently, including/excluding some program parts, for example to obtain a runtime executor.


1) This is the original documentation of nanoBase 1997, with minor modifications, that appeared originally at http://www.geocities.com/SiliconValley/7737/nb.htm.


Appunti di informatica libera 2008 --- Copyright © 2000-2008 Daniele Giacomini -- <appunti2 (ad) gmail·com>


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