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Capitolo 694.   Definizione di SQL92 in notazione BNF

In questo capitolo, viene descritto il linguaggio SQL92 secondo la notazione BNF (Backus Naur form, si veda eventualmente il capitolo 542, per l'interpretazione di tale notazione). La sintassi che viene mostrata qui è tratta da <http://www.contrib.andrew.cmu.edu/~shadow/sql/sql2bnf.aug92.txt> e manca della definizione di ciò che richiede una descrizione più ampia.

<SQL terminal character> ::=
      <SQL language character>
    | <SQL embedded language character>
<SQL language character> ::=
      <simple Latin letter>
    | <digit>
    | <SQL special character>
<simple Latin letter> ::=
      <simple Latin upper case letter>
    | <simple Latin lower case letter>
<simple Latin upper case letter> ::=
          A | B | C | D | E | F | G | H | I | J | K | L | M | N | O
    | P | Q | R | S | T | U | V | W | X | Y | Z
<simple Latin lower case letter> ::=
          a | b | c | d | e | f | g | h | i | j | k | l | m | n | o
    | p | q | r | s | t | u | v | w | x | y | z
<digit> ::=
    0 | 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | 6 | 7 | 8 | 9
<SQL special character> ::=
      <space>
    | <double quote>
    | <percent>
    | <ampersand>
    | <quote>
    | <left paren>
    | <right paren>
    | <asterisk>
    | <plus sign>
    | <comma>
    | <minus sign>
    | <period>
    | <solidus>
    | <colon>
    | <semicolon>
    | <less than operator>
    | <equals operator>
    | <greater than operator>
    | <question mark>
    | <underscore>
    | <vertical bar>
<space> ::= ␣
<double quote> ::= "
<percent> ::= %
<ampersand> ::= &
<quote> ::= '
<left paren> ::= (
<right paren> ::= )
<asterisk> ::= *
<plus sign> ::= +
<comma> ::= ,
<minus sign> ::= -
<period> ::= .
<solidus> ::= /
<colon> ::= :
<semicolon> ::= ;
<less than operator> ::= <
<equals operator> ::= =
<greater than operator> ::= >
<question mark> ::= ?
<underscore> ::= _
<vertical bar> ::= |
<SQL embedded language character> ::=
      <left bracket>
    | <right bracket>
<left bracket> ::= [
<right bracket> ::= ]
<token> ::=
      <nondelimiter token>
    | <delimiter token>
<nondelimiter token> ::=
      <regular identifier>
    | <key word>
    | <unsigned numeric literal>
    | <national character string literal>
    | <bit string literal>
    | <hex string literal>
<regular identifier> ::= <identifier body>
<identifier body> ::=
    <identifier start> [ { <underscore> | <identifier part> }... ]
<identifier part> ::=
      <identifier start>
    | <digit>
<key word> ::=
      <reserved word>
    | <non-reserved word>
<reserved word> ::=
      ABSOLUTE | ACTION | ADD | ALL
    | ALLOCATE | ALTER | AND
    | ANY | ARE
    | AS | ASC
    | ASSERTION | AT
    | AUTHORIZATION | AVG
    | BEGIN | BETWEEN | BIT | BIT_LENGTH
    | BOTH | BY
    | CASCADE | CASCADED | CASE | CAST
    | CATALOG
    | CHAR | CHARACTER | CHAR_LENGTH
    | CHARACTER_LENGTH | CHECK | CLOSE | COALESCE
    | COLLATE | COLLATION
    | COLUMN | COMMIT
    | CONNECT
    | CONNECTION | CONSTRAINT
    | CONSTRAINTS | CONTINUE
    | CONVERT | CORRESPONDING | COUNT | CREATE | CROSS
    | CURRENT
    | CURRENT_DATE | CURRENT_TIME
    | CURRENT_TIMESTAMP | CURRENT_USER | CURSOR
    | DATE | DAY | DEALLOCATE | DEC
    | DECIMAL | DECLARE | DEFAULT | DEFERRABLE
    | DEFERRED | DELETE | DESC | DESCRIBE | DESCRIPTOR
    | DIAGNOSTICS
    | DISCONNECT | DISTINCT | DOMAIN | DOUBLE | DROP
    | ELSE | END | END-EXEC | ESCAPE
    | EXCEPT | EXCEPTION
    | EXEC | EXECUTE | EXISTS
    | EXTERNAL | EXTRACT
    | FALSE | FETCH | FIRST | FLOAT | FOR
    | FOREIGN | FOUND | FROM | FULL
    | GET | GLOBAL | GO | GOTO
    | GRANT | GROUP
    | HAVING | HOUR
    | IDENTITY | IMMEDIATE | IN | INDICATOR
    | INITIALLY | INNER | INPUT
    | INSENSITIVE | INSERT | INT | INTEGER | INTERSECT
    | INTERVAL | INTO | IS
    | ISOLATION
    | JOIN
    | KEY
    | LANGUAGE | LAST | LEADING | LEFT
    | LEVEL | LIKE | LOCAL | LOWER
    | MATCH | MAX | MIN | MINUTE | MODULE
    | MONTH
    | NAMES | NATIONAL | NATURAL | NCHAR | NEXT | NO
    | NOT | NULL
    | NULLIF | NUMERIC
    | OCTET_LENGTH | OF
    | ON | ONLY | OPEN | OPTION | OR
    | ORDER | OUTER
    | OUTPUT | OVERLAPS
    | PAD | PARTIAL | POSITION | PRECISION | PREPARE
    | PRESERVE | PRIMARY
    | PRIOR | PRIVILEGES | PROCEDURE | PUBLIC
    | READ | REAL | REFERENCES | RELATIVE | RESTRICT
    | REVOKE | RIGHT
    | ROLLBACK | ROWS
    | SCHEMA | SCROLL | SECOND | SECTION
    | SELECT
    | SESSION | SESSION_USER | SET
    | SIZE | SMALLINT | SOME | SPACE | SQL | SQLCODE
    | SQLERROR | SQLSTATE
    | SUBSTRING | SUM | SYSTEM_USER
    | TABLE | TEMPORARY
    | THEN | TIME | TIMESTAMP
    | TIMEZONE_HOUR | TIMEZONE_MINUTE
    | TO | TRAILING | TRANSACTION
    | TRANSLATE | TRANSLATION | TRIM | TRUE
    | UNION | UNIQUE | UNKNOWN | UPDATE | UPPER | USAGE
    | USER | USING
    | VALUE | VALUES | VARCHAR | VARYING | VIEW
    | WHEN | WHENEVER | WHERE | WITH | WORK | WRITE
    | YEAR
    | ZONE
<non-reserved word> ::=
      ADA
    | C | CATALOG_NAME
    | CHARACTER_SET_CATALOG | CHARACTER_SET_NAME
    | CHARACTER_SET_SCHEMA | CLASS_ORIGIN | COBOL | COLLATION_CATALOG
    | COLLATION_NAME | COLLATION_SCHEMA | COLUMN_NAME | COMMAND_FUNCTION
    | COMMITTED
    | CONDITION_NUMBER | CONNECTION_NAME | CONSTRAINT_CATALOG | CONSTRAINT_NAME
    | CONSTRAINT_SCHEMA | CURSOR_NAME
    | DATA | DATETIME_INTERVAL_CODE
    | DATETIME_INTERVAL_PRECISION | DYNAMIC_FUNCTION
    | FORTRAN
    | LENGTH
    | MESSAGE_LENGTH | MESSAGE_OCTET_LENGTH | MESSAGE_TEXT | MORE | MUMPS
    | NAME | NULLABLE | NUMBER
    | PASCAL | PLI
    | REPEATABLE | RETURNED_LENGTH | RETURNED_OCTET_LENGTH | RETURNED_SQLSTATE
    | ROW_COUNT
    | SCALE | SCHEMA_NAME | SERIALIZABLE | SERVER_NAME | SUBCLASS_ORIGIN
    | TABLE_NAME | TYPE
    | UNCOMMITTED | UNNAMED
<unsigned numeric literal> ::=
      <exact numeric literal>
    | <approximate numeric literal>
<exact numeric literal> ::=
      <unsigned integer> [ <period> [ <unsigned integer> ] ]
    | <period> <unsigned integer>
<unsigned integer> ::= <digit>...
<approximate numeric literal> ::= <mantissa> E <exponent>
<mantissa> ::= <exact numeric literal>
<exponent> ::= <signed integer>
<signed integer> ::= [ <sign> ] <unsigned integer>
<sign> ::= <plus sign> | <minus sign>
<national character string literal> ::=
    N <quote> [ <character representation>... ] <quote>
      [ { <separator>... <quote> [ <character representation>... ] <quote> }... ]
<character representation> ::=
      <nonquote character>
    | <quote symbol>
<quote symbol> ::= <quote><quote>
<separator> ::= { <comment> | <space> | <newline> }...
<comment> ::=
    <comment introducer> [ <comment character>... ] <newline>
<comment introducer> ::= <minus sign><minus sign>[<minus sign>...]
<comment character> ::=
      <nonquote character>
    | <quote>
<bit string literal> ::=
    B <quote> [ <bit>... ] <quote>
      [ { <separator>... <quote> [ <bit>... ] <quote> }... ]
<bit> ::= 0 | 1
<hex string literal> ::=
    X <quote> [ <hexit>... ] <quote>
      [ { <separator>... <quote> [ <hexit>... ] <quote> }... ]
<hexit> ::= <digit> | A | B | C | D | E | F | a | b | c | d | e | f
<delimiter token> ::=
      <character string literal>
    | <date string>
    | <time string>
    | <timestamp string>
    | <interval string>
    | <delimited identifier>
    | <SQL special character>
    | <not equals operator>
    | <greater than or equals operator>
    | <less than or equals operator>
    | <concatenation operator>
    | <double period>
    | <left bracket>
    | <right bracket>
<character string literal> ::=
    [ <introducer><character set specification> ]
    <quote> [ <character representation>... ] <quote>
      [ { <separator>... <quote> [ <character representation>... ] <quote> }... ]
<introducer> ::= <underscore>
<character set specification> ::=
      <standard character repertoire name>
    | <implementation-defined character repertoire name>
    | <user-defined character repertoire name>
    | <standard universal character form-of-use name>
    | <implementation-defined universal character form-of-use name>
<standard character repertoire name> ::= <character set name>
<character set name> ::= [ <schema name> <period> ]
      <SQL language identifier>
<schema name> ::=
    [ <catalog name> <period> ] <unqualified schema name>
<catalog name> ::= <identifier>
<identifier> ::=
    [ <introducer><character set specification> ] <actual identifier>
<actual identifier> ::=
      <regular identifier>
    | <delimited identifier>
<delimited identifier> ::=
    <double quote> <delimited identifier body> <double quote>
<delimited identifier body> ::= <delimited identifier part>...
<delimited identifier part> ::=
      <nondoublequote character>
    | <doublequote symbol>
<doublequote symbol> ::= <double quote><double quote>
<unqualified schema name> ::= <identifier>
<SQL language identifier> ::=
    <SQL language identifier start>
       [ { <underscore> | <SQL language identifier part> }... ]
<SQL language identifier start> ::= <simple Latin letter>
<SQL language identifier part> ::=
      <simple Latin letter>
    | <digit>
<implementation-defined character repertoire name> ::=
    <character set name>
<user-defined character repertoire name> ::= <character set name>
<standard universal character form-of-use name> ::=
    <character set name>
<implementation-defined universal character form-of-use name> ::=
    <character set name>
<date string> ::=
    <quote> <date value> <quote>
<date value> ::=
    <years value> <minus sign> <months value>
        <minus sign> <days value>
<years value> ::= <datetime value>
<datetime value> ::= <unsigned integer>
<months value> ::= <datetime value>
<days value> ::= <datetime value>
<time string> ::=
    <quote> <time value> [ <time zone interval> ] <quote>
<time value> ::=
    <hours value> <colon> <minutes value> <colon> <seconds value>
<hours value> ::= <datetime value>
<minutes value> ::= <datetime value>
<seconds value> ::=
      <seconds integer value> [ <period> [ <seconds fraction> ] ]
<seconds integer value> ::= <unsigned integer>
<seconds fraction> ::= <unsigned integer>
<time zone interval> ::=
    <sign> <hours value> <colon> <minutes value>
<timestamp string> ::=
    <quote> <date value> <space> <time value>
        [ <time zone interval> ] <quote>
<interval string> ::=
    <quote> { <year-month literal> | <day-time literal> } <quote>
<year-month literal> ::=
      <years value>
    | [ <years value> <minus sign> ] <months value>
<day-time literal> ::=
      <day-time interval>
    | <time interval>
<day-time interval> ::=
    <days value>
      [ <space> <hours value> [ <colon> <minutes value>
        [ <colon> <seconds value> ] ] ]
<time interval> ::=
      <hours value> [ <colon> <minutes value> [ <colon> <seconds value> ] ]
    | <minutes value> [ <colon> <seconds value> ]
    | <seconds value>
<not equals operator> ::= <>
<greater than or equals operator> ::= >=
<less than or equals operator> ::= <=
<concatenation operator> ::= ||
<double period> ::= ..
<module> ::=
    <module name clause>
    <language clause>
    <module authorization clause>
    [ <temporary table declaration>... ]
    <module contents>...
<module name clause> ::=
    MODULE [ <module name> ]
      [ <module character set specification> ]
<module name> ::= <identifier>
<module character set specification> ::=
    NAMES ARE <character set specification>
<language clause> ::=
    LANGUAGE <language name>
<language name> ::=
    ADA | C | COBOL | FORTRAN | MUMPS | PASCAL | PLI
<module authorization clause> ::=
      SCHEMA <schema name>
    | AUTHORIZATION <module authorization identifier>
    | SCHEMA <schema name>
          AUTHORIZATION <module authorization identifier>
<module authorization identifier> ::=
    <authorization identifier>
<authorization identifier> ::= <identifier>
<temporary table declaration> ::=
    DECLARE LOCAL TEMPORARY TABLE
        <qualified local table name>
      <table element list>
      [ ON COMMIT { PRESERVE | DELETE } ROWS ]
<qualified local table name> ::=
    MODULE <period> <local table name>
<local table name> ::= <qualified identifier>
<qualified identifier> ::= <identifier>
<table element list> ::=
      <left paren> <table element> [ { <comma> <table element> }... ] <right paren>
<table element> ::=
      <column definition>
    | <table constraint definition>
<column definition> ::=
    <column name> { <data type> | <domain name> }
    [ <default clause> ]
    [ <column constraint definition>... ]
    [ <collate clause> ]
<column name> ::= <identifier>
<data type> ::=
      <character string type>
           [ CHARACTER SET <character set specification> ]
    | <national character string type>
    | <bit string type>
    | <numeric type>
    | <datetime type>
    | <interval type>
<character string type> ::=
      CHARACTER [ <left paren> <length> <right paren> ]
    | CHAR [ <left paren> <length> <right paren> ]
    | CHARACTER VARYING <left paren> <length> <right paren>
    | CHAR VARYING <left paren> <length> <right paren>
    | VARCHAR <left paren> <length> <right paren>
<length> ::= <unsigned integer>
<national character string type> ::=
      NATIONAL CHARACTER [ <left paren> <length> <right paren> ]
    | NATIONAL CHAR [ <left paren> <length> <right paren> ]
    | NCHAR [ <left paren> <length> <right paren> ]
    | NATIONAL CHARACTER VARYING <left paren> <length> <right paren>
    | NATIONAL CHAR VARYING <left paren> <length> <right paren>
    | NCHAR VARYING <left paren> <length> <right paren>
<bit string type> ::=
      BIT [ <left paren> <length> <right paren> ]
    | BIT VARYING <left paren> <length> <right paren>
<numeric type> ::=
      <exact numeric type>
    | <approximate numeric type>
<exact numeric type> ::=
      NUMERIC [ <left paren> <precision> [ <comma> <scale> ] <right paren> ]
    | DECIMAL [ <left paren> <precision> [ <comma> <scale> ] <right paren> ]
    | DEC [ <left paren> <precision> [ <comma> <scale> ] <right paren> ]
    | INTEGER
    | INT
    | SMALLINT
<precision> ::= <unsigned integer>
<scale> ::= <unsigned integer>
<approximate numeric type> ::=
      FLOAT [ <left paren> <precision> <right paren> ]
    | REAL
    | DOUBLE PRECISION
<datetime type> ::=
      DATE
    | TIME [ <left paren> <time precision> <right paren> ]
          [ WITH TIME ZONE ]
    | TIMESTAMP [ <left paren> <timestamp precision> <right paren> ]
          [ WITH TIME ZONE ]
<time precision> ::= <time fractional seconds precision>
<time fractional seconds precision> ::= <unsigned integer>
<timestamp precision> ::= <time fractional seconds precision>
<interval type> ::= INTERVAL <interval qualifier>
<interval qualifier> ::=
      <start field> TO <end field>
    | <single datetime field>
<start field> ::=
    <non-second datetime field>
        [ <left paren> <interval leading field precision> <right paren> ]
<non-second datetime field> ::= YEAR | MONTH | DAY | HOUR
    | MINUTE
<interval leading field precision> ::= <unsigned integer>
<end field> ::=
      <non-second datetime field>
    | SECOND [ <left paren> <interval fractional seconds precision> <right paren> ]
<interval fractional seconds precision> ::= <unsigned integer>
<single datetime field> ::=
      <non-second datetime field>
          [ <left paren> <interval leading field precision> <right paren> ]
    | SECOND [ <left paren> <interval leading field precision>
          [ <comma> <interval fractional seconds precision> ] <right paren> ]
<domain name> ::= <qualified name>
<qualified name> ::=
    [ <schema name> <period> ] <qualified identifier>
<default clause> ::=
      DEFAULT <default option>
<default option> ::=
      <literal>
    | <datetime value function>
    | USER
    | CURRENT_USER
    | SESSION_USER
    | SYSTEM_USER
    | NULL
<literal> ::=
      <signed numeric literal>
    | <general literal>
<signed numeric literal> ::=
    [ <sign> ] <unsigned numeric literal>
<general literal> ::=
      <character string literal>
    | <national character string literal>
    | <bit string literal>
    | <hex string literal>
    | <datetime literal>
    | <interval literal>
<datetime literal> ::=
      <date literal>
    | <time literal>
    | <timestamp literal>
<date literal> ::=
    DATE <date string>
<time literal> ::=
    TIME <time string>
<timestamp literal> ::=
    TIMESTAMP <timestamp string>
<interval literal> ::=
    INTERVAL [ <sign> ] <interval string> <interval qualifier>
<datetime value function> ::=
      <current date value function>
    | <current time value function>
    | <current timestamp value function>
<current date value function> ::= CURRENT_DATE
<current time value function> ::=
      CURRENT_TIME [ <left paren> <time precision> <right paren> ]
<current timestamp value function> ::=
      CURRENT_TIMESTAMP [ <left paren> <timestamp precision> <right paren> ]
<column constraint definition> ::=
    [ <constraint name definition> ]
    <column constraint>
      [ <constraint attributes> ]
<constraint name definition> ::= CONSTRAINT <constraint name>
<constraint name> ::= <qualified name>
<column constraint> ::=
      NOT NULL
    | <unique specification>
    | <references specification>
    | <check constraint definition>
<unique specification> ::=
    UNIQUE | PRIMARY KEY
<references specification> ::=
    REFERENCES <referenced table and columns>
      [ MATCH <match type> ]
      [ <referential triggered action> ]
<referenced table and columns> ::=
     <table name> [ <left paren> <reference column list> <right paren> ]
<table name> ::=
      <qualified name>
    | <qualified local table name>
<reference column list> ::= <column name list>
<column name list> ::=
    <column name> [ { <comma> <column name> }... ]
<match type> ::=
      FULL
    | PARTIAL
<referential triggered action> ::=
      <update rule> [ <delete rule> ]
    | <delete rule> [ <update rule> ]
<update rule> ::= ON UPDATE <referential action>
<referential action> ::=
      CASCADE
    | SET NULL
    | SET DEFAULT
    | NO ACTION
<delete rule> ::= ON DELETE <referential action>
<check constraint definition> ::=
    CHECK
        <left paren> <search condition> <right paren>
<search condition> ::=
      <boolean term>
    | <search condition> OR <boolean term>
<boolean term> ::=
      <boolean factor>
    | <boolean term> AND <boolean factor>
<boolean factor> ::=
    [ NOT ] <boolean test>
<boolean test> ::=
    <boolean primary> [ IS [ NOT ]
          <truth value> ]
<boolean primary> ::=
      <predicate>
    | <left paren> <search condition> <right paren>
<predicate> ::=
      <comparison predicate>
    | <between predicate>
    | <in predicate>
    | <like predicate>
    | <null predicate>
    | <quantified comparison predicate>
    | <exists predicate>
    | <unique predicate>
    | <match predicate>
    | <overlaps predicate>
<comparison predicate> ::=
    <row value constructor> <comp op>
        <row value constructor>
<row value constructor> ::=
       <row value constructor element>
    | <left paren> <row value constructor list> <right paren>
    | <row subquery>
<row value constructor element> ::=
      <value expression>
    | <null specification>
    | <default specification>
<value expression> ::=
      <numeric value expression>
    | <string value expression>
    | <datetime value expression>
    | <interval value expression>
<numeric value expression> ::=
      <term>
    | <numeric value expression> <plus sign> <term>
    | <numeric value expression> <minus sign> <term>
<term> ::=
      <factor>
    | <term> <asterisk> <factor>
    | <term> <solidus> <factor>
<factor> ::=
    [ <sign> ] <numeric primary>
<numeric primary> ::=
      <value expression primary>
    | <numeric value function>
<value expression primary> ::=
      <unsigned value specification>
    | <column reference>
    | <set function specification>
    | <scalar subquery>
    | <case expression>
    | <left paren> <value expression> <right paren>
    | <cast specification>
<unsigned value specification> ::=
      <unsigned literal>
    | <general value specification>
<unsigned literal> ::=
      <unsigned numeric literal>
    | <general literal>
<general value specification> ::=
      <parameter specification>
    | <dynamic parameter specification>
    | <variable specification>
    | USER
    | CURRENT_USER
    | SESSION_USER
    | SYSTEM_USER
    | VALUE
<parameter specification> ::=
    <parameter name> [ <indicator parameter> ]
<parameter name> ::= <colon> <identifier>
<indicator parameter> ::=
    [ INDICATOR ] <parameter name>
<dynamic parameter specification> ::= <question mark>
<variable specification> ::=
    <embedded variable name> [ <indicator variable> ]
<embedded variable name> ::=
    <colon><host identifier>
<host identifier> ::=
      <Ada host identifier>
    | <C host identifier>
    | <COBOL host identifier>
    | <Fortran host identifier>
    | <MUMPS host identifier>
    | <Pascal host identifier>
    | <PL/I host identifier>
<indicator variable> ::=
    [ INDICATOR ] <embedded variable name>
<column reference> ::= [ <qualifier> <period> ] <column name>
<qualifier> ::=
      <table name>
    | <correlation name>
<correlation name> ::= <identifier>
<set function specification> ::=
      COUNT <left paren> <asterisk> <right paren>
    | <general set function>
<general set function> ::=
      <set function type>
          <left paren> [ <set quantifier> ] <value expression> <right paren>
<set function type> ::=
    AVG | MAX | MIN | SUM | COUNT
<set quantifier> ::= DISTINCT | ALL
<scalar subquery> ::= <subquery>
<subquery> ::= <left paren> <query expression> <right paren>
<query expression> ::=
      <non-join query expression>
    | <joined table>
<non-join query expression> ::=
      <non-join query term>
    | <query expression> UNION  [ ALL ]
          [ <corresponding spec> ] <query term>
    | <query expression> EXCEPT [ ALL ]
          [ <corresponding spec> ] <query term>
<non-join query term> ::=
      <non-join query primary>
    | <query term> INTERSECT [ ALL ]
          [ <corresponding spec> ] <query primary>
<non-join query primary> ::=
      <simple table>
    | <left paren> <non-join query expression> <right paren>
<simple table> ::=
      <query specification>
    | <table value constructor>
    | <explicit table>
<query specification> ::=
    SELECT [ <set quantifier> ] <select list> <table expression>
<select list> ::=
      <asterisk>
    | <select sublist> [ { <comma> <select sublist> }... ]
<select sublist> ::=
      <derived column>
    | <qualifier> <period> <asterisk>
<derived column> ::= <value expression> [ <as clause> ]
<as clause> ::= [ AS ] <column name>
<table expression> ::=
    <from clause>
    [ <where clause> ]
    [ <group by clause> ]
    [ <having clause> ]
<from clause> ::= FROM <table reference>
    [ { <comma> <table reference> }... ]
<table reference> ::=
      <table name> [ [ AS ] <correlation name>
          [ <left paren> <derived column list> <right paren> ] ]
    | <derived table> [ AS ] <correlation name>
          [ <left paren> <derived column list> <right paren> ]
    | <joined table>
<derived column list> ::= <column name list>
<derived table> ::= <table subquery>
<table subquery> ::= <subquery>
<joined table> ::=
      <cross join>
    | <qualified join>
    | <left paren> <joined table> <right paren>
<cross join> ::=
    <table reference> CROSS JOIN <table reference>
<qualified join> ::=
    <table reference> [ NATURAL ] [ <join type> ] JOIN
      <table reference> [ <join specification> ]
<join type> ::=
      INNER
    | <outer join type> [ OUTER ]
    | UNION
<outer join type> ::=
      LEFT
    | RIGHT
    | FULL
<join specification> ::=
      <join condition>
    | <named columns join>
<join condition> ::= ON <search condition>
<named columns join> ::=
    USING <left paren> <join column list> <right paren>
<join column list> ::= <column name list>
<where clause> ::= WHERE <search condition>
<group by clause> ::=
    GROUP BY <grouping column reference list>
<grouping column reference list> ::=
    <grouping column reference>
        [ { <comma> <grouping column reference> }... ]
<grouping column reference> ::=
    <column reference> [ <collate clause> ]
<collate clause> ::= COLLATE <collation name>
<collation name> ::= <qualified name>
<having clause> ::= HAVING <search condition>
<table value constructor> ::=
    VALUES <table value constructor list>
<table value constructor list> ::=
    <row value constructor> [ { <comma> <row value constructor> }... ]
<explicit table> ::= TABLE <table name>
<query term> ::=
      <non-join query term>
    | <joined table>
<corresponding spec> ::=
    CORRESPONDING [ BY <left paren> <corresponding column list> <right paren> ]
<corresponding column list> ::= <column name list>
<query primary> ::=
      <non-join query primary>
    | <joined table>
<case expression> ::=
      <case abbreviation>
    | <case specification>
<case abbreviation> ::=
      NULLIF <left paren> <value expression> <comma>
            <value expression> <right paren>
    | COALESCE <left paren> <value expression>
            { <comma> <value expression> }... <right paren>
<case specification> ::=
      <simple case>
    | <searched case>
<simple case> ::=
    CASE <case operand>
      <simple when clause>...
      [ <else clause> ]
    END
<case operand> ::= <value expression>
<simple when clause> ::= WHEN <when operand> THEN <result>
<when operand> ::= <value expression>
<result> ::= <result expression> | NULL
<result expression> ::= <value expression>
<else clause> ::= ELSE <result>
<searched case> ::=
    CASE
      <searched when clause>...
      [ <else clause> ]
    END
<searched when clause> ::= WHEN <search condition> THEN <result>
<cast specification> ::=
    CAST <left paren> <cast operand> AS
        <cast target> <right paren>
<cast operand> ::=
      <value expression>
    | NULL
<cast target> ::=
      <domain name>
    | <data type>
<numeric value function> ::=
      <position expression>
    | <extract expression>
    | <length expression>
<position expression> ::=
    POSITION <left paren> <character value expression>
        IN <character value expression> <right paren>
<character value expression> ::=
      <concatenation>
    | <character factor>
<concatenation> ::=
    <character value expression> <concatenation operator>
        <character factor>
<character factor> ::=
    <character primary> [ <collate clause> ]
<character primary> ::=
      <value expression primary>
    | <string value function>
<string value function> ::=
      <character value function>
    | <bit value function>
<character value function> ::=
      <character substring function>
    | <fold>
    | <form-of-use conversion>
    | <character translation>
    | <trim function>
<character substring function> ::=
    SUBSTRING <left paren> <character value expression> FROM <start position>
                [ FOR <string length> ] <right paren>
<start position> ::= <numeric value expression>
<string length> ::= <numeric value expression>
<fold> ::= { UPPER | LOWER }
     <left paren> <character value expression> <right paren>
<form-of-use conversion> ::=
    CONVERT <left paren> <character value expression>
        USING <form-of-use conversion name> <right paren>
<form-of-use conversion name> ::= <qualified name>
<character translation> ::=
    TRANSLATE <left paren> <character value expression>
        USING <translation name> <right paren>
<translation name> ::= <qualified name>
<trim function> ::=
    TRIM <left paren> <trim operands> <right paren>
<trim operands> ::=
    [ [ <trim specification> ] [ <trim character> ] FROM ] <trim source>
<trim specification> ::=
      LEADING
    | TRAILING
    | BOTH
<trim character> ::= <character value expression>
<trim source> ::= <character value expression>
<bit value function> ::=
    <bit substring function>
<bit substring function> ::=
    SUBSTRING <left paren> <bit value expression> FROM <start position>
        [ FOR <string length> ] <right paren>
<bit value expression> ::=
      <bit concatenation>
    | <bit factor>
<bit concatenation> ::=
    <bit value expression> <concatenation operator> <bit factor>
<bit factor> ::= <bit primary>
<bit primary> ::=
      <value expression primary>
    | <string value function>
<extract expression> ::=
    EXTRACT <left paren> <extract field>
        FROM <extract source> <right paren>
<extract field> ::=
      <datetime field>
    | <time zone field>
<datetime field> ::=
      <non-second datetime field>
    | SECOND
<time zone field> ::=
      TIMEZONE_HOUR
    | TIMEZONE_MINUTE
<extract source> ::=
      <datetime value expression>
    | <interval value expression>
<datetime value expression> ::=
      <datetime term>
    | <interval value expression> <plus sign> <datetime term>
    | <datetime value expression> <plus sign> <interval term>
    | <datetime value expression> <minus sign> <interval term>
<interval term> ::=
      <interval factor>
    | <interval term 2> <asterisk> <factor>
    | <interval term 2> <solidus> <factor>
    | <term> <asterisk> <interval factor>
<interval factor> ::=
    [ <sign> ] <interval primary>
<interval primary> ::=
      <value expression primary> [ <interval qualifier> ]
<interval term 2> ::= <interval term>
<interval value expression> ::=
      <interval term>
    | <interval value expression 1> <plus sign> <interval term 1>
    | <interval value expression 1> <minus sign> <interval term 1>
    | <left paren> <datetime value expression> <minus sign>
          <datetime term> <right paren> <interval qualifier>
<interval value expression 1> ::= <interval value expression>
<interval term 1> ::= <interval term>
<datetime term> ::=
      <datetime factor>
<datetime factor> ::=
      <datetime primary> [ <time zone> ]
<datetime primary> ::=
      <value expression primary>
    | <datetime value function>
<time zone> ::=
    AT <time zone specifier>
<time zone specifier> ::=
      LOCAL
    | TIME ZONE <interval value expression>
<length expression> ::=
      <char length expression>
    | <octet length expression>
    | <bit length expression>
<char length expression> ::=
    { CHAR_LENGTH | CHARACTER_LENGTH }
        <left paren> <string value expression> <right paren>
<string value expression> ::=
      <character value expression>
    | <bit value expression>
<octet length expression> ::=
    OCTET_LENGTH <left paren> <string value expression> <right paren>
<bit length expression> ::=
    BIT_LENGTH <left paren> <string value expression> <right paren>
<null specification> ::=
    NULL
<default specification> ::=
    DEFAULT
<row value constructor list> ::=
    <row value constructor element>
        [ { <comma> <row value constructor element> }... ]
<row subquery> ::= <subquery>
<comp op> ::=
      <equals operator>
    | <not equals operator>
    | <less than operator>
    | <greater than operator>
    | <less than or equals operator>
    | <greater than or equals operator>
<between predicate> ::=
    <row value constructor> [ NOT ] BETWEEN
      <row value constructor> AND <row value constructor>
<in predicate> ::=
    <row value constructor>
      [ NOT ] IN <in predicate value>
<in predicate value> ::=
      <table subquery>
    | <left paren> <in value list> <right paren>
<in value list> ::=
    <value expression> { <comma> <value expression> }...
<like predicate> ::=
    <match value> [ NOT ] LIKE <pattern>
      [ ESCAPE <escape character> ]
<match value> ::= <character value expression>
<pattern> ::= <character value expression>
<escape character> ::= <character value expression>
<null predicate> ::= <row value constructor>
    IS [ NOT ] NULL
<quantified comparison predicate> ::=
    <row value constructor> <comp op> <quantifier> <table subquery>
<quantifier> ::= <all> | <some>
<all> ::= ALL
<some> ::= SOME | ANY
<exists predicate> ::= EXISTS <table subquery>
<unique predicate> ::= UNIQUE <table subquery>
<match predicate> ::=
    <row value constructor> MATCH [ UNIQUE ]
        [ PARTIAL | FULL ] <table subquery>
<overlaps predicate> ::=
    <row value constructor 1> OVERLAPS <row value constructor 2>
<row value constructor 1> ::= <row value constructor>
<row value constructor 2> ::= <row value constructor>
<truth value> ::=
      TRUE
    | FALSE
    | UNKNOWN
<constraint attributes> ::=
      <constraint check time> [ [ NOT ] DEFERRABLE ]
    | [ NOT ] DEFERRABLE [ <constraint check time> ]
<constraint check time> ::=
      INITIALLY DEFERRED
    | INITIALLY IMMEDIATE
<table constraint definition> ::=
    [ <constraint name definition> ]
    <table constraint> [ <constraint attributes> ]
<table constraint> ::=
      <unique constraint definition>
    | <referential constraint definition>
    | <check constraint definition>
<unique constraint definition> ::=
            <unique specification> even in SQL3)
    <unique specification>
      <left paren> <unique column list> <right paren>
<unique column list> ::= <column name list>
<referential constraint definition> ::=
    FOREIGN KEY
        <left paren> <referencing columns> <right paren>
      <references specification>
<referencing columns> ::=
    <reference column list>
<module contents> ::=
      <declare cursor>
    | <dynamic declare cursor>
    | <procedure>
<declare cursor> ::=
    DECLARE <cursor name> [ INSENSITIVE ] [ SCROLL ] CURSOR
      FOR <cursor specification>
<cursor name> ::= <identifier>
<cursor specification> ::=
    <query expression> [ <order by clause> ]
      [ <updatability clause> ]
<order by clause> ::=
    ORDER BY <sort specification list>
<sort specification list> ::=
    <sort specification> [ { <comma> <sort specification> }... ]
<sort specification> ::=
    <sort key> [ <collate clause> ] [ <ordering specification> ]
<sort key> ::=
      <column name>
    | <unsigned integer>
<ordering specification> ::= ASC | DESC
<updatability clause> ::=
    FOR
        { READ ONLY |
          UPDATE [ OF <column name list> ] }
<dynamic declare cursor> ::=
    DECLARE <cursor name> [ INSENSITIVE ] [ SCROLL ] CURSOR
        FOR <statement name>
<statement name> ::= <identifier>
<procedure> ::=
    PROCEDURE <procedure name>
        <parameter declaration list> <semicolon>
      <SQL procedure statement> <semicolon>
<procedure name> ::= <identifier>
<parameter declaration list> ::=
      <left paren> <parameter declaration>
          [ { <comma> <parameter declaration> }... ] <right paren>
    | <parameter declaration>...
<parameter declaration> ::=
      <parameter name> <data type>
    | <status parameter>
<status parameter> ::=
    SQLCODE | SQLSTATE
<SQL procedure statement> ::=
      <SQL schema statement>
    | <SQL data statement>
    | <SQL transaction statement>
    | <SQL connection statement>
    | <SQL session statement>
    | <SQL dynamic statement>
    | <SQL diagnostics statement>
<SQL schema statement> ::=
      <SQL schema definition statement>
    | <SQL schema manipulation statement>
<SQL schema definition statement> ::=
      <schema definition>
    | <table definition>
    | <view definition>
    | <grant statement>
    | <domain definition>
    | <character set definition>
    | <collation definition>
    | <translation definition>
    | <assertion definition>
<schema definition> ::=
    CREATE SCHEMA <schema name clause>
      [ <schema character set specification> ]
      [ <schema element>... ]
<schema name clause> ::=
      <schema name>
    | AUTHORIZATION <schema authorization identifier>
    | <schema name> AUTHORIZATION
          <schema authorization identifier>
<schema authorization identifier> ::=
    <authorization identifier>
<schema character set specification> ::=
    DEFAULT CHARACTER
        SET <character set specification>
<schema element> ::=
      <domain definition>
    | <table definition>
    | <view definition>
    | <grant statement>
    | <assertion definition>
    | <character set definition>
    | <collation definition>
    | <translation definition>
<domain definition> ::=
    CREATE DOMAIN <domain name>
        [ AS ] <data type>
      [ <default clause> ]
      [ <domain constraint>... ]
      [ <collate clause> ]
<domain constraint> ::=
    [ <constraint name definition> ]
    <check constraint definition> [ <constraint attributes> ]
<table definition> ::=
    CREATE [ { GLOBAL | LOCAL } TEMPORARY ] TABLE
        <table name>
      <table element list>
      [ ON COMMIT { DELETE | PRESERVE } ROWS ]
<view definition> ::=
    CREATE VIEW <table name> [ <left paren> <view column list>
                                  <right paren> ]
      AS <query expression>
      [ WITH [ <levels clause> ] CHECK OPTION ]
<view column list> ::= <column name list>
<levels clause> ::=
    CASCADED | LOCAL
<grant statement> ::=
   GRANT <privileges> ON <object name>
     TO <grantee> [ { <comma> <grantee> }... ]
       [ WITH GRANT OPTION ]
<privileges> ::=
      ALL PRIVILEGES
    | <action list>
<action list> ::= <action> [ { <comma> <action> }... ]
<action> ::=
      SELECT
    | DELETE
    | INSERT [ <left paren> <privilege column list> <right paren> ]
    | UPDATE [ <left paren> <privilege column list> <right paren> ]
    | REFERENCES [ <left paren> <privilege column list> <right paren> ]
    | USAGE
<privilege column list> ::= <column name list>
<object name> ::=
      [ TABLE ] <table name>
    | DOMAIN <domain name>
    | COLLATION <collation name>
    | CHARACTER SET <character set name>
    | TRANSLATION <translation name>
<grantee> ::=
      PUBLIC
    | <authorization identifier>
<assertion definition> ::=
    CREATE ASSERTION <constraint name> <assertion check>
      [ <constraint attributes> ]
<assertion check> ::=
    CHECK
        <left paren> <search condition> <right paren>
<character set definition> ::=
    CREATE CHARACTER SET <character set name>
        [ AS ]
      <character set source>
      [ <collate clause> | <limited collation definition> ]
<character set source> ::=
      GET <existing character set name>
<existing character set name> ::=
      <standard character repertoire name>
    | <implementation-defined character repertoire name>
    | <schema character set name>
<schema character set name> ::= <character set name>
<limited collation definition> ::=
    COLLATION FROM <collation source>
<collation source> ::=
      <collating sequence definition>
    | <translation collation>
<collating sequence definition> ::=
      <external collation>
    | <schema collation name>
    | DESC <left paren> <collation name> <right paren>
    | DEFAULT
<external collation> ::=
    EXTERNAL <left paren> <quote> <external collation name> <quote> <right paren>
<external collation name> ::=
      <standard collation name>
    | <implementation-defined collation name>
<standard collation name> ::= <collation name>
<implementation-defined collation name> ::= <collation name>
<schema collation name> ::= <collation name>
<translation collation> ::=
    TRANSLATION <translation name>
        [ THEN COLLATION <collation name> ]
<collation definition> ::=
    CREATE COLLATION <collation name> FOR
        <character set specification>
      FROM <collation source>
        [ <pad attribute> ]
<pad attribute> ::=
      NO PAD
    | PAD SPACE
<translation definition> ::=
    CREATE TRANSLATION <translation name>
      FOR <source character set specification>
        TO <target character set specification>
      FROM <translation source>
<source character set specification> ::= <character set specification>
<target character set specification> ::= <character set specification>
<translation source> ::=
      <translation specification>
<translation specification> ::=
      <external translation>
    | IDENTITY
    | <schema translation name>
<external translation> ::=
    EXTERNAL <left paren> <quote> <external translation name> <quote> <right paren>
<external translation name> ::=
      <standard translation name>
    | <implementation-defined translation name>
<standard translation name> ::= <translation name>
<implementation-defined translation name> ::= <translation name>
<schema translation name> ::= <translation name>
<SQL schema manipulation statement> ::=
      <drop schema statement>
    | <alter table statement>
    | <drop table statement>
    | <drop view statement>
    | <revoke statement>
    | <alter domain statement>
    | <drop domain statement>
    | <drop character set statement>
    | <drop collation statement>
    | <drop translation statement>
    | <drop assertion statement>
<drop schema statement> ::=
    DROP SCHEMA <schema name> <drop behavior>
<drop behavior> ::= CASCADE | RESTRICT
<alter table statement> ::=
    ALTER TABLE <table name> <alter table action>
<alter table action> ::=
      <add column definition>
    | <alter column definition>
    | <drop column definition>
    | <add table constraint definition>
    | <drop table constraint definition>
<add column definition> ::=
    ADD [ COLUMN ] <column definition>
<alter column definition> ::=
    ALTER [ COLUMN ] <column name> <alter column action>
<alter column action> ::=
      <set column default clause>
    | <drop column default clause>
<set column default clause> ::=
    SET <default clause>
<drop column default clause> ::=
    DROP DEFAULT
<drop column definition> ::=
    DROP [ COLUMN ] <column name> <drop behavior>
<add table constraint definition> ::=
    ADD <table constraint definition>
<drop table constraint definition> ::=
    DROP CONSTRAINT <constraint name> <drop behavior>
<drop table statement> ::=
    DROP TABLE <table name> <drop behavior>
<drop view statement> ::=
    DROP VIEW <table name> <drop behavior>
<revoke statement> ::=
    REVOKE [ GRANT OPTION FOR ]
        <privileges>
        ON <object name>
      FROM <grantee> [ { <comma> <grantee> }... ] <drop behavior>
<alter domain statement> ::=
    ALTER DOMAIN <domain name> <alter domain action>
<alter domain action> ::=
      <set domain default clause>
    | <drop domain default clause>
    | <add domain constraint definition>
    | <drop domain constraint definition>
<set domain default clause> ::= SET <default clause>
<drop domain default clause> ::= DROP DEFAULT
<add domain constraint definition> ::=
    ADD <domain constraint>
<drop domain constraint definition> ::=
    DROP CONSTRAINT <constraint name>
<drop domain statement> ::=
    DROP DOMAIN <domain name> <drop behavior>
<drop character set statement> ::=
    DROP CHARACTER SET <character set name>
<drop collation statement> ::=
    DROP COLLATION <collation name>
<drop translation statement> ::=
    DROP TRANSLATION <translation name>
<drop assertion statement> ::=
    DROP ASSERTION <constraint name>
<SQL data statement> ::=
      <open statement>
    | <fetch statement>
    | <close statement>
    | <select statement: single row>
    | <SQL data change statement>
<open statement> ::=
    OPEN <cursor name>
<fetch statement> ::=
    FETCH [ [ <fetch orientation> ] FROM ]
      <cursor name> INTO <fetch target list>
<fetch orientation> ::=
      NEXT
    | PRIOR
    | FIRST
    | LAST
    | { ABSOLUTE | RELATIVE } <simple value specification>
<simple value specification> ::=
      <parameter name>
    | <embedded variable name>
    | <literal>
<fetch target list> ::=
    <target specification> [ { <comma> <target specification> }... ]
<target specification> ::=
      <parameter specification>
    | <variable specification>
<close statement> ::=
    CLOSE <cursor name>
<select statement: single row> ::=
    SELECT [ <set quantifier> ] <select list>
      INTO <select target list>
        <table expression>
<select target list> ::=
    <target specification> [ { <comma> <target specification> }... ]
<SQL data change statement> ::=
      <delete statement: positioned>
    | <delete statement: searched>
    | <insert statement>
    | <update statement: positioned>
    | <update statement: searched>
<delete statement: positioned> ::=
    DELETE FROM <table name>
      WHERE CURRENT OF <cursor name>
<delete statement: searched> ::=
    DELETE FROM <table name>
      [ WHERE <search condition> ]
<insert statement> ::=
    INSERT INTO <table name>
      <insert columns and source>
<insert columns and source> ::=
      [ <left paren> <insert column list> <right paren> ]
            <query expression>
    | DEFAULT VALUES
<insert column list> ::= <column name list>
<update statement: positioned> ::=
    UPDATE <table name>
      SET <set clause list>
        WHERE CURRENT OF <cursor name>
<set clause list> ::=
    <set clause> [ { <comma> <set clause> }... ]
<set clause> ::=
    <object column> <equals operator> <update source>
<object column> ::= <column name>
<update source> ::=
      <value expression>
    | <null specification>
    | DEFAULT
<update statement: searched> ::=
    UPDATE <table name>
      SET <set clause list>
      [ WHERE <search condition> ]
<SQL transaction statement> ::=
      <set transaction statement>
    | <set constraints mode statement>
    | <commit statement>
    | <rollback statement>
<set transaction statement> ::=
    SET TRANSACTION <transaction mode>
        [ { <comma> <transaction mode> }... ]
<transaction mode> ::=
      <isolation level>
    | <transaction access mode>
    | <diagnostics size>
<isolation level> ::=
    ISOLATION LEVEL <level of isolation>
<level of isolation> ::=
      READ UNCOMMITTED
    | READ COMMITTED
    | REPEATABLE READ
    | SERIALIZABLE
<transaction access mode> ::=
      READ ONLY
    | READ WRITE
<diagnostics size> ::=
    DIAGNOSTICS SIZE <number of conditions>
<number of conditions> ::= <simple value specification>
<set constraints mode statement> ::=
    SET CONSTRAINTS <constraint name list>
        { DEFERRED | IMMEDIATE }
<constraint name list> ::=
      ALL
    | <constraint name> [ { <comma> <constraint name> }... ]
<commit statement> ::=
    COMMIT [ WORK ]
<rollback statement> ::=
    ROLLBACK [ WORK ]
<SQL connection statement> ::=
      <connect statement>
    | <set connection statement>
    | <disconnect statement>
<connect statement> ::=
    CONNECT TO <connection target>
<connection target> ::=
      <SQL-server name>
        [ AS <connection name> ]
          correspondence with Tony Gordon)
        [ USER <user name> ]
    | DEFAULT
<SQL-server name> ::= <simple value specification>
<connection name> ::= <simple value specification>
<user name> ::= <simple value specification>
<set connection statement> ::=
    SET CONNECTION <connection object>
<connection object> ::=
      DEFAULT
    | <connection name>
<disconnect statement> ::=
    DISCONNECT <disconnect object>
<disconnect object> ::=
      <connection object>
    | ALL
    | CURRENT
<SQL session statement> ::=
      <set catalog statement>
    | <set schema statement>
    | <set names statement>
    | <set session authorization identifier statement>
    | <set local time zone statement>
<set catalog statement> ::=
    SET CATALOG <value specification>
<value specification> ::=
      <literal>
    | <general value specification>
<set schema statement> ::=
    SET SCHEMA <value specification>
<set names statement> ::=
    SET NAMES <value specification>
<set session authorization identifier statement> ::=
    SET SESSION AUTHORIZATION
        <value specification>
<set local time zone statement> ::=
    SET TIME ZONE
        <set time zone value>
<set time zone value> ::=
      <interval value expression>
    | LOCAL
<SQL dynamic statement> ::=
      <system descriptor statement>
    | <prepare statement>
    | <deallocate prepared statement>
    | <describe statement>
    | <execute statement>
    | <execute immediate statement>
    | <SQL dynamic data statement>
<system descriptor statement> ::=
      <allocate descriptor statement>
    | <deallocate descriptor statement>
    | <set descriptor statement>
    | <get descriptor statement>
<allocate descriptor statement> ::=
    ALLOCATE DESCRIPTOR <descriptor name>
       [ WITH MAX <occurrences> ]
<descriptor name> ::=
    [ <scope option> ] <simple value specification>
<scope option> ::=
      GLOBAL
    | LOCAL
<occurrences> ::= <simple value specification>
<deallocate descriptor statement> ::=
    DEALLOCATE DESCRIPTOR <descriptor name>
<set descriptor statement> ::=
    SET DESCRIPTOR <descriptor name>
        <set descriptor information>
<set descriptor information> ::=
      <set count>
    | VALUE <item number>
        <set item information> [ { <comma> <set item information> }... ]
<set count> ::=
    COUNT <equals operator> <simple value specification 1>
<simple value specification 1> ::= <simple value specification>
<item number> ::= <simple value specification>
<set item information> ::=
    <descriptor item name> <equals operator> <simple value specification 2>
<descriptor item name> ::=
      TYPE
    | LENGTH
    | OCTET_LENGTH
    | RETURNED_LENGTH
    | RETURNED_OCTET_LENGTH
    | PRECISION
    | SCALE
    | DATETIME_INTERVAL_CODE
    | DATETIME_INTERVAL_PRECISION
    | NULLABLE
    | INDICATOR
    | DATA
    | NAME
    | UNNAMED
    | COLLATION_CATALOG
    | COLLATION_SCHEMA
    | COLLATION_NAME
    | CHARACTER_SET_CATALOG
    | CHARACTER_SET_SCHEMA
    | CHARACTER_SET_NAME
<simple value specification 2> ::= <simple value specification>
<item number> ::= <simple value specification>
<get descriptor statement> ::=
    GET DESCRIPTOR <descriptor name> <get descriptor information>
<get descriptor information> ::=
      <get count>
    | VALUE <item number>
        <get item information> [ { <comma> <get item information> }... ]
<get count> ::=
    <simple target specification 1> <equals operator>
         COUNT
<simple target specification 1> ::= <simple target specification>
<simple target specification> ::=
      <parameter name>
    | <embedded variable name>
<get item information> ::=
    <simple target specification 2> <equals operator> <descriptor item name>>
<simple target specification 2> ::= <simple target specification>
<prepare statement> ::=
    PREPARE <SQL statement name> FROM <SQL statement variable>
<SQL statement name> ::=
      <statement name>
    | <extended statement name>
<extended statement name> ::=
    [ <scope option> ] <simple value specification>
<SQL statement variable> ::= <simple value specification>
<deallocate prepared statement> ::=
    DEALLOCATE PREPARE <SQL statement name>
<describe statement> ::=
      <describe input statement>
    | <describe output statement>
<describe input statement> ::=
    DESCRIBE INPUT <SQL statement name> <using descriptor>
<using descriptor> ::=
    { USING | INTO } SQL DESCRIPTOR <descriptor name>
<describe output statement> ::=
    DESCRIBE [ OUTPUT ] <SQL statement name> <using descriptor>
<execute statement> ::=
    EXECUTE <SQL statement name>
      [ <result using clause> ]
      [ <parameter using clause> ]
<result using clause> ::= <using clause>
<using clause> ::=
      <using arguments>
    | <using descriptor>
<using arguments> ::=
    { USING | INTO } <argument> [ { <comma> <argument> }... ]
<argument> ::= <target specification>
<parameter using clause> ::= <using clause>
<execute immediate statement> ::=
    EXECUTE IMMEDIATE <SQL statement variable>
<SQL dynamic data statement> ::=
      <allocate cursor statement>
    | <dynamic open statement>
    | <dynamic fetch statement>
    | <dynamic close statement>
    | <dynamic delete statement: positioned>
    | <dynamic update statement: positioned>
<allocate cursor statement> ::=
    ALLOCATE <extended cursor name> [ INSENSITIVE ]
        [ SCROLL ] CURSOR
      FOR <extended statement name>
<extended cursor name> ::=
    [ <scope option> ] <simple value specification>
<dynamic open statement> ::=
    OPEN <dynamic cursor name> [ <using clause> ]
<dynamic cursor name> ::=
      <cursor name>
    | <extended cursor name>
<dynamic fetch statement> ::=
    FETCH [ [ <fetch orientation> ] FROM ] <dynamic cursor name>
        <using clause>
<dynamic close statement> ::=
    CLOSE <dynamic cursor name>
<dynamic delete statement: positioned> ::=
    DELETE FROM <table name>
      WHERE CURRENT OF
          <dynamic cursor name>
<dynamic update statement: positioned> ::=
    UPDATE <table name>
      SET <set clause>
          [ { <comma> <set clause> }... ]
        WHERE CURRENT OF
            <dynamic cursor name>
<SQL diagnostics statement> ::=
    <get diagnostics statement>
<get diagnostics statement> ::=
    GET DIAGNOSTICS <sql diagnostics information>
<sql diagnostics information> ::=
      <statement information>
    | <condition information>
<statement information> ::=
    <statement information item> [ { <comma> <statement information item> }... ]
<statement information item> ::=
    <simple target specification> <equals operator> <statement information item name>
<statement information item name> ::=
      NUMBER
    | MORE
    | COMMAND_FUNCTION
    | DYNAMIC_FUNCTION
    | ROW_COUNT
<condition information> ::=
    EXCEPTION <condition number>
      <condition information item> [ { <comma> <condition information item> }... ]
<condition number> ::= <simple value specification>
<condition information item> ::=
    <simple target specification> <equals operator> <condition information item name>
<condition information item name> ::=
      CONDITION_NUMBER
    | RETURNED_SQLSTATE
    | CLASS_ORIGIN
    | SUBCLASS_ORIGIN
    | SERVER_NAME
    | CONNECTION_NAME
    | CONSTRAINT_CATALOG
    | CONSTRAINT_SCHEMA
    | CONSTRAINT_NAME
    | CATALOG_NAME
    | SCHEMA_NAME
    | TABLE_NAME
    | COLUMN_NAME
    | CURSOR_NAME
    | MESSAGE_TEXT
    | MESSAGE_LENGTH
    | MESSAGE_OCTET_LENGTH
<embedded SQL host program> ::=
      <embedded SQL Ada program>
    | <embedded SQL C program>
    | <embedded SQL COBOL program>
    | <embedded SQL Fortran program>
    | <embedded SQL MUMPS program>
    | <embedded SQL Pascal program>
    | <embedded SQL PL/I program>
<embedded SQL declare section> ::=
      <embedded SQL begin declare>
        [ <embedded character set declaration> ]
        [ <host variable definition>... ]
      <embedded SQL end declare>
    | <embedded SQL MUMPS declare>
<embedded SQL begin declare> ::=
    <SQL prefix> BEGIN DECLARE SECTION
        [ <SQL terminator> ]
<SQL prefix> ::=
      EXEC SQL
    | <ampersand>SQL<left paren>
<SQL terminator> ::=
      END-EXEC
    | <semicolon>
    | <right paren>
<embedded character set declaration> ::=
    SQL NAMES ARE <character set specification>
<host variable definition> ::=
      <Ada variable definition>
    | <C variable definition>
    | <COBOL variable definition>
    | <Fortran variable definition>
    | <MUMPS variable definition>
    | <Pascal variable definition>
    | <PL/I variable definition>
<Ada variable definition> ::=
    <Ada host identifier> [ { <comma> <Ada host identifier> }... ] :
    <Ada type specification> [ <Ada initial value> ]
<Ada type specification> ::=
      <Ada qualified type specification>
    | <Ada unqualified type specification>
<Ada qualified type specification> ::=
      SQL_STANDARD.CHAR [ CHARACTER SET
         [ IS ] <character set specification> ]
          <left paren> 1 <double period> <length> <right paren>
    | SQL_STANDARD.BIT
          <left paren> 1 <double period> <length> <right paren>
    | SQL_STANDARD.SMALLINT
    | SQL_STANDARD.INT
    | SQL_STANDARD.REAL
    | SQL_STANDARD.DOUBLE_PRECISION
    | SQL_STANDARD.SQLCODE_TYPE
    | SQL_STANDARD.SQLSTATE_TYPE
    | SQL_STANDARD.INDICATOR_TYPE
<Ada unqualified type specification> ::=
      CHAR
          <left paren> 1 <double period> <length> <right paren>
    | BIT
          <left paren> 1 <double period> <length> <right paren>
    | SMALLINT
    | INT
    | REAL
    | DOUBLE_PRECISION
    | SQLCODE_TYPE
    | SQLSTATE_TYPE
    | INDICATOR_TYPE
<Ada initial value> ::=
    <Ada assignment operator> <character representation>...
<Ada assignment operator> ::= <colon><equals operator>
<C variable definition> ::=
      [ <C storage class> ]
      [ <C class modifier> ]
      <C variable specification>
    <semicolon>
<C storage class> ::=
      auto
    | extern
    | static
<C class modifier> ::= const | volatile
<C variable specification> ::=
      <C numeric variable>
    | <C character variable>
    | <C derived variable>
<C numeric variable> ::=
    { long | short | float | double }
      <C host identifier> [ <C initial value> ]
            [ { <comma> <C host identifier> [ <C initial value> ] }... ]
<C initial value> ::=
    <equals operator> <character representation>...
<C character variable> ::=
    char [ CHARACTER SET
             [ IS ] <character set specification> ]
      <C host identifier>
        <C array specification> [ <C initial value> ]
        [ { <comma> <C host identifier>
          <C array specification>
                 [ <C initial value> ] }... ]
<C array specification> ::=
    <left bracket> <length> <right bracket>
<C derived variable> ::=
      <C VARCHAR variable>
    | <C bit variable>
<C VARCHAR variable> ::=
    VARCHAR [ CHARACTER SET [ IS ]
        <character set specification> ]
        <C host identifier>
            <C array specification> [ <C initial value> ]
          [ { <comma> <C host identifier>
              <C array specification>
                      [ <C initial value> ] }... ]
<C bit variable> ::=
    BIT <C host identifier>
        <C array specification> [ <C initial value> ]
      [ { <comma> <C host identifier>
        <C array specification>
                   [ <C initial value> ] }... ]
<COBOL variable definition> ::=
    {01|77} <COBOL host identifier> <COBOL type specification>
      [ <character representation>... ] <period>
<COBOL type specification> ::=
      <COBOL character type>
    | <COBOL bit type>
    | <COBOL numeric type>
    | <COBOL integer type>
<COBOL character type> ::=
    [ CHARACTER SET [ IS ]
          <character set specification> ]
    { PIC | PICTURE } [ IS ] { X [ <left paren> <length> <right paren> ] }...
<COBOL bit type> ::=
    { PIC | PICTURE } [ IS ]
        { B [ <left paren> <length> <right paren> ] }...
<COBOL numeric type> ::=
    { PIC | PICTURE } [ IS ]
      S <COBOL nines specification>
    [ USAGE [ IS ] ] DISPLAY SIGN LEADING SEPARATE
<COBOL nines specification> ::=
      <COBOL nines> [ V [ <COBOL nines> ] ]
    | V <COBOL nines>
<COBOL nines> ::= { 9 [ <left paren> <length> <right paren> ] }...
<COBOL integer type> ::=
      <COBOL computational integer>
    | <COBOL binary integer>
<COBOL computational integer> ::=
    { PIC | PICTURE } [ IS ] S<COBOL nines>
      [ USAGE [ IS ] ] { COMP | COMPUTATIONAL }
<COBOL binary integer> ::=
    { PIC | PICTURE } [ IS ] S<COBOL nines>
      [ USAGE [ IS ] ] BINARY
<Fortran variable definition> ::=
    <Fortran type specification>
    <Fortran host identifier>
        [ { <comma> <Fortran host identifier> }... ]
<Fortran type specification> ::=
      CHARACTER [ <asterisk> <length> ]
          [ CHARACTER SET [ IS ]
                <character set specification> ]
    | BIT [ <asterisk> <length> ]
    | INTEGER
    | REAL
    | DOUBLE PRECISION
<MUMPS variable definition> ::=
    { <MUMPS numeric variable> | <MUMPS character variable> }
        <semicolon>
<MUMPS numeric variable> ::=
    <MUMPS type specification>
      <MUMPS host identifier> [ { <comma> <MUMPS host identifier> }... ]
<MUMPS type specification> ::=
      INT
    | DEC
          [ <left paren> <precision> [ <comma> <scale> ] <right paren> ]
    | REAL
<MUMPS character variable> ::=
    VARCHAR <MUMPS host identifier> <MUMPS length specification>
      [ { <comma> <MUMPS host identifier> <MUMPS length specification> }... ]
<MUMPS length specification> ::=
    <left paren> <length> <right paren>
<Pascal variable definition> ::=
    <Pascal host identifier> [ { <comma> <Pascal host identifier> }... ] <colon>
      <Pascal type specification> <semicolon>
<Pascal type specification> ::=
      PACKED ARRAY
          <left bracket> 1 <double period> <length> <right bracket>
        OF CHAR
          [ CHARACTER SET [ IS ]
                <character set specification> ]
    | PACKED ARRAY
          <left bracket> 1 <double period> <length> <right bracket>
        OF BIT
    | INTEGER
    | REAL
    | CHAR [ CHARACTER SET
                                [ IS ] <character set specification> ]
    | BIT
<PL/I variable definition> ::=
    {DCL | DECLARE}
        {   <PL/I host identifier>
          | <left paren> <PL/I host identifier>
                [ { <comma> <PL/I host identifier> }... ] <right paren> }
    <PL/I type specification>
    [ <character representation>... ] <semicolon>
<PL/I type specification> ::=
      { CHAR | CHARACTER } [ VARYING ]
          <left paren><length><right paren>
          [ CHARACTER SET
                [ IS ] <character set specification> ]
    | BIT [ VARYING ] <left paren><length><right paren>
    | <PL/I type fixed decimal> <left paren> <precision>
          [ <comma> <scale> ] <right paren>
    | <PL/I type fixed binary> [ <left paren> <precision> <right paren> ]
    | <PL/I type float binary> <left paren> <precision> <right paren>
<PL/I type fixed decimal> ::=
      { DEC | DECIMAL } FIXED
    | FIXED { DEC | DECIMAL }
<PL/I type fixed binary> ::=
      { BIN | BINARY } FIXED
    | FIXED { BIN | BINARY }
<PL/I type float binary> ::=
      { BIN | BINARY } FLOAT
    | FLOAT { BIN | BINARY }
<embedded SQL end declare> ::=
    <SQL prefix> END DECLARE SECTION
        [ <SQL terminator> ]
<embedded SQL MUMPS declare> ::=
    <SQL prefix>
      BEGIN DECLARE SECTION
        [ <embedded character set declaration> ]
        [ <host variable definition>... ]
      END DECLARE SECTION
    <SQL terminator>
<embedded SQL statement> ::=
    <SQL prefix>
      <statement or declaration>
    [ <SQL terminator> ]
<statement or declaration> ::=
      <declare cursor>
    | <dynamic declare cursor>
    | <temporary table declaration>
    | <embedded exception declaration>
    | <SQL procedure statement>
<embedded exception declaration> ::=
    WHENEVER <condition> <condition action>
<condition> ::=
    SQLERROR | NOT FOUND
<condition action> ::=
    CONTINUE | <go to>
<go to> ::=
    { GOTO | GO TO } <goto target>
<goto target> ::=
      <host label identifier>
    | <unsigned integer>
    | <host PL/I label variable>
<preparable statement> ::=
      <preparable SQL data statement>
    | <preparable SQL schema statement>
    | <preparable SQL transaction statement>
    | <preparable SQL session statement>
    | <preparable implementation-defined statement>
<preparable SQL data statement> ::=
      <delete statement: searched>
    | <dynamic single row select statement>
    | <insert statement>
    | <dynamic select statement>
    | <update statement: searched>
    | <preparable dynamic delete statement: positioned>
    | <preparable dynamic update statement: positioned>
<dynamic single row select statement> ::= <query specification>
<dynamic select statement> ::= <cursor specification>
<preparable dynamic delete statement: positioned> ::=
   DELETE [ FROM <table name> ]
      WHERE CURRENT OF <cursor name>
<preparable dynamic update statement: positioned> ::=
   UPDATE [ <table name> ]
      SET <set clause list>
      WHERE CURRENT OF <cursor name>
<preparable SQL schema statement> ::=
      <SQL schema statement>
<preparable SQL transaction statement> ::=
      <SQL transaction statement>
<preparable SQL session statement> ::=
      <SQL session statement>
<direct SQL statement> ::=
    <directly executable statement> <semicolon>
<directly executable statement> ::=
      <direct SQL data statement>
    | <SQL schema statement>
    | <SQL transaction statement>
    | <SQL connection statement>
    | <SQL session statement>
    | <direct implementation-defined statement>
<direct SQL data statement> ::=
      <delete statement: searched>
    | <direct select statement: multiple rows>
    | <insert statement>
    | <update statement: searched>
    | <temporary table declaration>
<direct select statement: multiple rows> ::=
    <query expression> [ <order by clause> ]
<SQL object identifier> ::=
    <SQL provenance> <SQL variant>
<SQL provenance> ::= <arc1> <arc2> <arc3>
<arc1> ::= iso | 1 | iso <left paren> 1 <right paren>
<arc2> ::= standard | 0 | standard <left paren> 0 <right paren>
<arc3> ::= 9075
<SQL variant> ::= <SQL edition> <SQL conformance>
<SQL edition> ::= <1987> | <1989> | <1992>
<1987> ::= 0 | edition1987 <left paren> 0 <right paren>
<1989> ::= <1989 base> <1989 package>
<1989 base> ::= 1 | edition1989 <left paren> 1 <right paren>
<1989 package> ::= <integrity no> | <integrity yes>
<integrity no> ::= 0 | IntegrityNo <left paren> 0 <right paren>
<integrity yes> ::= 1 | IntegrityYes <left paren> 1 <right paren>
<1992> ::= 2 | edition1992 <left paren> 2 <right paren>
<SQL conformance> ::= <low> | <intermediate> | <high>
<low> ::= 0 | Low <left paren> 0 <right paren>
<intermediate> ::= 1 | Intermediate <left paren> 1 <right paren>
<high> ::= 2 | High <left paren> 2 <right paren>

694.1   Riferimenti


Appunti di informatica libera 2008 --- Copyright © 2000-2008 Daniele Giacomini -- <appunti2 (ad) gmail·com>


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